The World Bank. Population, total—Fragile and conflict affected situations. Published online 2018. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=F1.
Ranson K, Poletti T, Bornemisza O, Sondorp E. Conflict-affected fragile states. Published online 2007.
Bakrania S, Lucas B. The Impact of the financial crisis on conflict and state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa. 2009.
Bertocchi G, Guerzoni A. Growth, history, or institutions: What explains state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa? J Peace Res. 2012;49(6):769–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343312452420.
Singh S, Orbinski JJ, Mills EJ. Conflict and health: a paradigm shift in global health and human rights. Confl Health. 2007;1(1):1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-1-1.
Garry S, Checchi F. Armed conflict and public health: into the 21st century. J Public Health. 1990;2019:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdz095.
Bafilemba F, Prendergast J. Congo stories: battling five centuries of exploitation and greed. 2018.
Ziegler BR. Pregnancy in Peril : the impact of conflict on antenatal care and skilled birth attendant utilization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi. Published online 2020.
The United Nations. Sustainable development goal. Published online 2015. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg3.
World Health Organization. Trends in maternal mortality 2000 to 2017: estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division: executive summary. World Health Organization; 2019,12 p.
The World Bank. Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births). Published online 2017. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT.
Atuoye KN, Amoyaw JA, Kuuire VZ, et al. Utilisation of skilled birth attendants over time in Nigeria and Malawi. Glob Public Health. 2017;12(6):728–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2017.1315441.
Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, et al. Global causes of maternal death: A WHO systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2014;2(6):323–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70227-X.
The World Health Organization. Maternal mortality. Published online 2019. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/maternal-mortality.
The World Health Organization. WHO Antenatal care randomized trial: manual for the implementation of the new model. 2002.
The World Health Organization. WHO Recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience. 2016. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/250796/9789241549912-eng.pdf?sequence=1.
Omer K, Afi NJ, Baba MC, et al. Seeking evidence to support efforts to increase use of antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two states of Nigeria. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-014-0380-4.
Andersen RM. Andersen and Newman framework of health services utilization. J Health Soc Behav. 1995;36:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/pme.12756.
National Heart Blood and Lung Institute. Study quality assessment tools. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools.
Neuman WL, Robson K. Basics of social researh. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada; 2014.
Warri D, George A. Perceptions of pregnant women of reasons for late initiation of antenatal care: a qualitative interview study. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2746-0.
Ndidi E, Oseremen I. Reasons given by pregnant women for late initiation of antenatal care in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ghana Med J. 2010. https://doi.org/10.4314/gmj.v44i2.68883.
Kluckow H, Panisi L, Larui J, et al. Socio-demographic predictors of unintended pregnancy and late antenatal booking in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;58(3):349–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajo.12782.
Ebeigbe PN, Igberase GO. Antenatal care: a comparison of demographic and obstetric characteristics of early and late attenders in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(11):529–32.
Edie GEHE, Obinchemti TE, Tamufor EN, Njie MM, Njamen TN, Achidi EA. Perceptions of antenatal care services by pregnant women attending government health centres in the Buea health district, Cameroon: a cross sectional study. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;21:1–9. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.21.45.4858.
Khanal V, da Cruz JLNB, Mishra SR, Karkee R, Lee AH. Under-utilization of antenatal care services in Timor-Leste: results from demographic and health survey 2009–2010. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0646-5.
Benage M, Gregg Greenough P, Vinck P, Omeira N, Pham P. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Confl Health. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-015-0035-8.
Anderson RM. Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: Does it matter? J Health Soc Behav. 1995;36(1):1–10.
Babitsch B, Gohl D, von Lengerke T. Re-revisiting Andersen’s behavioral model of health services use: a systematic review of studies from 1998–2011. Psycho-Soc Med. 2012. https://doi.org/10.3205/psm000089.
Abimbola JM, Makanjuola AT, Ganiyu SA, Babatunde UMM, Adekunle DK, Olatayo AA. Pattern of utilization of ante-natal and delivery services in a semi-urban community of north-central Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2016;16(4):962–71. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i4.12.
Adam IF, Nakamura K, Kizuki M, Al Rifai R, Vanching U. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: Evidence from Darfur, Sudan. BMJ Open. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008285.
Edu BC, Agan TU, Monjok E, Makowiecka K. Effect of free maternal health care program on health-seeking behavior of women during pregnancy, intra-partum and postpartum periods in Cross River State of Nigeria: a mixed method study. Maced J Med Sci. 2017;5(3):370–82. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2017.075.
Ntambue AM, Malonga FK, Dramaix-Wilmet M, Ngatu RN, Donnen P. Better than nothing? Maternal, newborn, and child health services and perinatal mortality, Lubumbashi, democratic republic of the Congo: a cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-0879-y.
De Allegri M, Ridde V, Louis VR, et al. Determinants of utilisation of maternal care services after the reduction of user fees: a case study from rural Burkina Faso. Health Policy. 2011;99(3):210–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.10.010.
Bashour H, Abdulsalam A, Al-Faisal W, Cheikha S. Patterns and determinants of maternity care in Damascus. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14(3):595–604.
Ebeigbe PN, Gharoro EP. Obstetric complications, intervention rates and maternofetal outcome in teenage nullipara in Benin City, Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2007;37(2):79–83. https://doi.org/10.1258/004947507780609356.
Nwakamma IJ, Erinmwinhe A, Ajogwu A, Udoh A, Ada-Ogoh A. Mitigating gender and maternal and child health injustices through faith community-led initiatives. Int J MCH AIDS. 2019;8(2):146–55. https://doi.org/10.21106/ijma.326.
Failing F, Ripa P, Tefuarani N, Vince J. A comparison of booked and unbooked mothers delivering at the Port Moresby General Hospital: a case-control study. P N G Med J. 2004;47(3–4):174–80.
El-Kak F, Chaaya M, Campbell O, Kaddour A. Patterns of antenatal care in low-versus high-risk pregnancies in Lebanon. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10(3):268–76.
Oyetundeo and Elery. Factors influecing use of antenatal care and delivery services in Gwagwalada Area Council, Nigeria. Afr J Midwifery Women’s Health. 2014;8(4):195–202.
Alosaimi AN, Nwaru B, Luoto R, Al Serouri AW, Mouniri H. Using household socioeconomic indicators to predict the utilization of maternal and child health services among reproductive-aged women in rural Yemen. Glob Pediatr Health. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794X19868926.
Arnaert A, Ponzoni N, Debe Z, Meda MM, Nana NG, Arnaert S. Experiences of women receiving mhealth-supported antenatal care in the village from community health workers in rural Burkina Faso. Africa Digit Health. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207619892756.
Al-Mujtaba M, Cornelius LJ, Galadanci H, et al. Evaluating religious influences on the utilization of maternal health services among Muslim and Christian Women in North-Central Nigeria. BIOMED Res Int. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3645415.
Telfer ML, Rowley JT, Walraven GEL. Experiences of mothers with antenatal, delivery and postpartum care in rural Gambia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2002;6(1):74–83. https://doi.org/10.2307/3583148.
Sibanda EL, Bernays S, Weller IVD, Hakim JG, Cowan FM. “Well, not me, but other women do not register because”—Barriers to seeking antenatal care in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among Zimbabwean women: a mixed-methods study. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-1898-7.
Somé DT, Sombié I, Meda N. How decision for seeking maternal care is made——a qualitative study in two rural medical districts of Burkina Faso. Reprod Health. 2013;10(1):1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-10-8.
Laing SP, Sinmyee SV, Rafique K, Smith HE, Cooper MJ. Barriers to antenatal care in an urban community in the Gambia: an in-depth qualitative interview study. Afr J Reprod Health. 2017;21(3):62–9.
Wilunda C, Scanagatta C, Putoto G, et al. Barriers to utilisation of antenatal care services in South Sudan: a qualitative study in Rumbek North County. Reprod Health. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-017-0327-0.
Haggaz A, Ahmed S, Adam I. Use of prenatal care services in Darfur, Sudan. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2008;103(3):252–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.06.010.
Andrew EVW, Pell C, Angwin A, et al. Factors affecting attendance at and timing of formal antenatal care: results from a qualitative study in Madang, Papua New Guinea. PLoS ONE. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093025.
Talhouk R, Mesmar S, Thieme A, et al. Syrian refugees and digital health in Lebanon: Opportunities for improving antenatal health. In: Conference on human factors in computing systems—proceedings. 2016;331–342. https://doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858331.
Tolefac PN, Halle-Ekane GE, Agbor VN, Sama CB, Ngwasiri C, Tebeu PM. Why do pregnant women present late for their first antenatal care consultation in Cameroon? Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2017;3(1):1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40748-017-0067-8.
Okonofua F, Ogu R, Agholor K, et al. Qualitative assessment of women’s satisfaction with maternal health care in referral hospitals in Nigeria. Reprod Health. 2017;14(1):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-017-0305-6.
Ifenne DI, Utoo BT. Gestational age at booking for antenatal care in a tertiary health facility in north-central, Nigeria. J Niger Med Assoc. 2012;53(4):236–9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.107602.
Rahmani Z, Brekke M. Antenatal and obstetric care in Afghanistan—a qualitative study among health care receivers and health care providers. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-166.
Alam N, Chowdhury ME, Kouanda S, et al. The role of transportation to access maternal care services for women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso: a mixed methods study. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2016;135:S45–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2016.09.003.
Donmozoun TS, Sombie I, Meda N. What prevent women for a sustainable use of maternal care in two medical districts of Burkina Faso? a qualitative study. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;18:1–6. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2014.18.43.2210.
Wallace HJ, McDonald S, Belton S, et al. The decision to seek care antenatally and during labour and birth—Who and what influences this in Timor-Leste? A qualitative project exploring the perceptions of Timorese women and men. Midwifery. 2018;65:35–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2018.05.013.
Shabila NP, Ahmed HM, Yasin MY. Women’s views and experiences of antenatal care in Iraq: a Q methodology study. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-14-43.
Chol C, Hunter C, Debru B, Haile B, Negin J, Cumming RG. Stakeholders’ perspectives on facilitators of and barriers to the utilisation of and access to maternal health services in Eritrea: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-1665-9.
Alex M, Whitty-Rogers J. Experiences of pregnancy complications: Voices from central Haiti. Health Care Women Int. 2017;38(10):1034–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2017.1350179.
Lawry L, Canteli C, Rabenzanahary T, Pramana W. A mixed methods assessment of barriers to maternal, newborn and child health in gogrial west, south Sudan. Reprod Health. 2017;14(1):1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-016-0269-y.
Mourtada R, Bottomley C, Houben F, Bashour H, Campbell OMR. A mixed methods analysis of factors affecting antenatal care content: a Syrian case study. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(3):1–24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214375.
Jallow IK, Chou YJ, Liu TL, Huang N. Womens perception of antenatal care services in public and private clinics in the Gambia. Int J Qual Health Care. 2012;24(6):595–600. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzs033.
Badal NF, Yusuf UA, Egal J, et al. With knowledge and support, women can attend antenatal care: the views of women in IDP camps in Somaliland. 2015.
Gure F, Yusuf M, Foster AM. Exploring Somali women’s reproductive health knowledge and experiences: results from focus group discussions in Mogadishu. Reprod Health Matters. 2015;23(46):136–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhm.2015.11.018.
Ekabua J, Ekabua K, Njoku C. Proposed framework for making focused antenatal care services accessible: a review of the Nigerian setting. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:1–5. https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/253964.
Stojanovski K, Holla A, Hoxha I, Howell E, Janevic T. The influence of ethnicity and displacement on quality of antenatal care: the case of Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities in Kosovo. Health Hum Rights. 2017;19(2):35–48.
Mullany LC, Beyrer C, Lee TJ, et al. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern burma. PLoS Med. 2008;5(12):1689–98. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050242.
Leone T, Alburez-Gutierrez D, Ghandour R, Coast E, Giacaman R. Maternal and child access to care and intensity of conflict in the occupied Palestinian territory: a pseudo longitudinal analysis (2000–2014). Confl Health. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-019-0220-2.
Solanke BL. Factors associated with use of maternal healthcare services during the Boko Haram insurgency in North-East Nigeria. Med Confl Surviv. 2018;34(3):158–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/13623699.2018.1511358.
Mugo NS, Dibley MJ, Damundu EY, Alam A. “The system here isn’t on patients’ side”—perspectives of women and men on the barriers to accessing and utilizing maternal healthcare services in South Sudan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2788-9.
Othman S, Almahbashi T, Alabed AAA, Abdulwahed A. Factors affecting utilization of antenatal care services in Sana’a city, Yeman. Malays J Public Health Med. 2017;17(3):1–14.
Oyewale TO, Mavundla TR. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria. Curationis. 2015;38(1):1–11. https://doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1272.
Teguete I, Maiga AW, Leppert PC. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of grand multiparas over two decades in Mali. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(5):580–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01372.x.
Ntambue AM, Dramaix-Wilmet M, Donnen P. Determinants of maternal health services utilization in urban settings of the Democratic Republic of Congo—a case study of Lubumbashi City. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2012;12(1):66.
Doctor HV, Findley SE, Ager A, et al. Using community-based research to shape the design and delivery of maternal health services in Northern Nigeria. Reprod Health Matters. 2012;20(39):104–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-8080(12)39615-8.
Truppa C, Leresche E, Fuller AF, et al. Utilization of primary health care services among Syrian refugee and Lebanese women targeted by the ICRC program in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study. Confl Health. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-019-0190-4.
Kiruja J, Osman F, Egal JA, Essén B, Klingberg-Allvin M, Erlandsson K. Maternal near-miss and death incidences—frequencies, causes and the referral chain in Somaliland: a pilot study using the WHO near-miss approach. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2017;12:30–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.srhc.2017.02.003.
Steenland M, Robyn PJ, Compaore P, et al. Performance-based financing to increase utilization of maternal health services: evidence from Burkina Faso. SSM Popul Health. 2016;2017(3):179–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.01.001.
Ashir GM, Doctor HV, Afenyadu GY. Performance based financing and uptake of maternal and child health services in yobe sate, northern Nigeria. Glob J Health Sci. 2013;5(3):34–41. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p34.
Ziegler BR, Kansanga M, Sano Y, Kangmennaang J, Kpienbaareh D, Luginaah I. Antenatal care utilization in the fragile and conflict-affected context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Soc Sci Med. 2020;262(July):113253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113253.
Ramos Jaraba SM, Quiceno Toro N, Ochoa Sierra M, et al. Health in conflict and post-conflict settings: reproductive, maternal and child health in Colombia. Confl Health. 2020;14(1):33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-020-00273-1.
Filippi V, Ronsmans C, Campbell OM, et al. Maternal health in poor countries: the broader context and a call for action. Lancet. 2006;368(9546):1535–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69384-7.
Kpienbaareh D, Atuoye KN, Ngabonzima A, et al. Spatio-temporal disparities in maternal health service utilization in Rwanda: What next for SDGs? Soc Sci Med. 2019;226(March):164–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.040.
Sami S, Mayai A, Sheehy G, et al. Maternal and child health service delivery in conflict-affected settings: a case study example from Upper Nile and Unity states, South Sudan. Confl Health. 2020;14(1):34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-020-00272-2.
Kelly JT, Betancourt TS, Mukwege D, Lipton R, VanRooyen MJ. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study. Confl Health. 2011;5(1):25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-5-25.
Daley P. Gender and genocide in burundi: the search for spaces of peace in the great Lakes region. 2008.
Baaz ME, Stern M. Why do soldiers rape? Masculinity, violence, and sexuality in the armed forces in the Congo (DRC). Int Stud Q. 2009;53(2):495–518. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00543.x.
Ezeh OK, Ogbo FA, Stevens GJ, et al. Factors Associated with the Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Nutrients. 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112765.
Bell S. The quantitative impact of conflict on education. 2011.
Uvin P. Life after violence: a people’s story of Burundi. 2008.
Manjoo R, McRaith C. Gender-based violence and justice in conflict and post-conflict areas. Cornell Int Law J. 2011;44:11–31.
Wirtz AL, Pham K, Glass N, et al. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia. Confl Health. 2014;8(1):10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-8-10.
Alhusen JL, Ray E, Sharps P, Bullock L. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes. J Womens Health. 2015;24(1):100–6. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2014.4872.
Gill MM, Ditekemena J, Loando A, et al. Addressing early retention in antenatal care among HIV-positive women through a simple intervention in Kinshasa, DRC: The Elombe “Champion” standard operating procedure. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(3):860–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1770-1.
Sano Y, Antabe R, Atuoye KN, Braimah JA, Galaa SZ, Luginaah I. Married women’s autonomy and post-delivery modern contraceptive use in the Democratic Republic of Congo. BMC Womens Health. 2018;18(1):4–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0540-1.
Tlapek SM. Women’s status and intimate partner violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Interpers Violence. 2015;30(14):2526–40. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514553118.
Mkandawire P, Atari O, Kangmennaang J, Arku G, Luginaah I, Etowa J. Pregnancy intention and gestational age at first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Rwanda. Midwifery. 2018;2019(68):30–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2018.08.017.
White D, Dynes M, Rubardt M, Sissoko K, Stephenson R. The influence of intra familial power on maternal health care in Mali: perspectives of women, men and mothers-in-law. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2013;39(2):58–68. https://doi.org/10.1363/3905813.
Ali R, Barra AF, Berg CN, Damania R, Nash JD, Russ J. Infrastructure in Conflict-Prone and Fragile Environments: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Geneva: The World Bank; 2015. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-7273.
Mullany LC, Lee TJ, Yone L, et al. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: The MOM project. PLoS Med. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000317.
Ebener S, Guerra-Arias M, Campbell J, et al. The geography of maternal and newborn health: the state of the art. Int J Health Geogr. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12942-015-0012-x.
Simkhada B, Van Teijlingen ER, Porter M, Simkhada P. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. J Adv Nurs. 2008;61(3):244–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04532.x.
Fakunle B, Okunlola MA, Fajola A, Ottih U, Ilesanmi AO. Community health insurance as a catalyst for uptake of family planning and reproductive health services: The Obio Cottage Hospital experience. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;34(6):501–3. https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2014.902044.
Ibnouf AH, van den Borne HW, Maarse JA. Utilization of antenatal care services by Sudanese women in their reproductive age. Saudi Med J. 2007;28(5):737–43.
Alenoghena IO, Isah EC, Isara AR. Maternal health services uptake and its determinants in public primary health care facilities in edo state, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2015;22(1):25–31.
Alhaidari T, Amso N, Jawad TM. Feasibility and acceptability of text messaging to support antenatal healthcare in Iraqi pregnant women: a pilot study. J Perinat Med. 2017;46(1):67–74. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2016-0127.
Balinska MA, Nesbitt R, Ghantous Z, Ciglenecki I, Staderini N. Reproductive health in humanitarian settings in Lebanon and Iraq: Results from four cross-sectional studies, 2014–2015. Confl Health. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-019-0210-4.
Chi PC, Bulage P, Urdal H, Sundby J. A qualitative study exploring the determinants of maternal health service uptake in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0449-8.
Findley SE, Doctor HV, Ashir GM. Reinvigorating health systems and community-based services to improve maternal health outcomes: case study from northern Nigeria. J Prim Care Community Health. 2015;6(2):88–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/2150131914549383.
Franco LM, Diop FP, Burgert CR, Kelley AG, Makinen M, Simparae CHT. Effects of mutual health organizations on use of priority health-care services in urban and rural Mali: a case-control study. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(11):830–8. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.08.051045.
Gao X, Kelley DW. Understanding how distance to facility and quality of care affect maternal health service utilization in Kenya and Haiti: a comparative geographic information system study. Geospat Health. 2019;14(1):92–102. https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2019.690.
Ibrahim HK, El Borgy MD, Mohammed HO. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of pregnant women towards antenatal care in primary healthcare centers in Benghazi, Libya. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2014;89(3):119–26. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.EPX.0000455673.91730.50.
Jibril UN, Saleh GN, Badaki O, Anyebe EE, Umar A, Kamal A. Health education intervention on knowledge and accessibility of pregnant women to antenatal care services in Edu, Kwara State, Nigeria. Int J Womens Health Reprod Sci. 2018;6(2):154–60. https://doi.org/10.15296/ijwhr.2018.26.
Larsen GL, Lupiwa S, Kave HP, Gillieatt S, Alpers MP. Antenatal care in Goroka: issues and perceptions. P N G Med J. 2004;47(3–4):202–14.
Maraga S, Namosha E, Gouda H, Vallely L, Rare L, Phuanukoonnon S. Sociodemographic factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Wosera. East Sepik Province. 2011;54(3–4):154–63.
Okonofua F, Ntoimo L, Ogungbangbe J, Anjorin S, Imongan W, Yaya S. Predictors of women’s utilization of primary health care for skilled pregnancy care in rural Nigeria. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-1730-4.
Rossier C, Muindi K, Soura A. Maternal health care utilization in Nairobi and Ouagadougou: evidence from HDSS. Glob Health Action. 2014;7:1–10. https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.24351.
Turan JM, Tesfagiorghis M, Polan ML. Evaluation of a community intervention for promotion of safe motherhood in Eritrea. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2011;56(1):8–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-2011.2010.00001.x.
Vail J. Antenatal utilization, family planning and fertility preferences in Tari. P N G Med J. 2002;45(1–2):134–41.
Viswanathan K, Hansen PM, Hafizur RM. Can community health workers increase coverage of reproductive health services? J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66(10):894–900. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2011-200275.
Adebangbe FT, Mturi AJ. Factors associated with the number of antenatal care visits among internally displaced women in northern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2021;25(2):120–30.
Feng Y, Ahuru RR, Anser MK, Osabohien R, Ahmad M, Efegbere AH. Household economic wealth management and antenatal care utilization among business women in the reproductive-age. Afr J Reprod Health. 2021;25(6):143.
Laing SP, Guzek JM, Rassam DM, Ceesay IS, N’Dow JMO. Determinants of compliance with the World Health Organisation recommendations for pregnant women in an urban health centre in The Gambia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2020;24(3):24–32. https://doi.org/10.29063/ajrh2020/v24i3.3.
Onalu C, Agwu P, Gobo B, Okoye U. Mortality experiences for women in riverine areas of the Niger delta and utilization of maternal health services. Health Soc Work. 2021;46(1):59–67. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlaa032.
Oyovwe P, Woolhead G. Exploring health care professionals’ and women’s perspectives on the barriers to maternal health services: a qualitative study in Eku Town of Delta State, Nigeria. AIMS Public Health. 2021;8(1):154–71. https://doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2021012.
Somé A, Baguiya A, Coulibaly A, Bagnoa V, Kouanda S. Prevalence and factors associated with late first antenatal care visit in kaya health district, Burkina Fao. Afr J Reprod Health. 2020;24(2):19–26. https://doi.org/10.29063/ajrh2020/v24i2.2.
Stanikzai MH, Wafa MH, Wasiq AW, Sayam H. Magnitude and determinants of antenatal care utilization in Kandahar City, Afghanistan. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2021;2021:e5201682. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5201682.
Sui Y, Ahuru RR, Huang K, Anser MK, Osabohien R. Household socioeconomic status and antenatal care utilization among women in the reproductive-age. Front Public Health. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.724337.
Kane S, Rial M, Kok M, Matere A, Dieleman M, Broerse JEW. Too afraid to go: fears of dignity violations as reasons for non-use of maternal health services in South Sudan. Reprod Health. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-018-0487-6.
Lowe M, Chen DR, Huang SL. Social and cultural factors affecting maternal health in rural Gambia: an exploratory qualitative study. PLoS ONE. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163653.
Meiksin R, Meekers D, Thompson S, Hagopian A, Mercer MA. Domestic violence, marital control, and family planning, maternal, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19(6):1338–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1638-1.
Ntoimo LFC, Okonofua FE, Igboin B, Ekwo C, Imongan W, Yaya S. Why rural women do not use primary health centres for pregnancy care: evidence from a qualitative study in Nigeria. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2433-1.
Igboanugo GM, Martin CH. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community’s perceptions of conventional maternity service provision? An exploratory qualitative study. Afr J Reprod Health. 2011;15(3):59–72.
Mohamed-Ahmed R, Aziz MA, Walker R. Antenatal care in Sudan: a qualitative study into accessibility and quality of maternal health services in Khartoum. Int J Childb. 2018;8(2):77–86. https://doi.org/10.1891/2156-5218.104.22.168.
Bayo P, Belaid L, Ochola E, et al. Maternal and neonatal health care service utilisation in the wake of active conflict and socio-economic downturn in Torit County, Republic of South Sudan: a multimethod locally driven study. Afr J Reprod Health. 2021;25(3s):30–42.
Akseer N, Bhatti Z, Rizvi A, Salehi AS, Mashal T, Bhutta ZA. Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan. BMC Public Health. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3406-1.
Galadanci HS, Ejembi CL, Iliyasu Z, Alagh B, Umar US. Maternal health in Northern Nigeria—a far cry from ideal. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;114(4):448–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01229.x.
Merrell LK, Blackstone SR. Women’s empowerment as a mitigating factor for improved antenatal care quality despite impact of 2014 Ebola Outbreak in Guinea. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21):8172. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218172.
Mutowo J, Yazbek M, van der Wath A, Maree C. Barriers to using antenatal care services in a rural district in Zimbabwe. Int J Afr Nurs Sci. 2021;15:100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijans.2021.100319.
Chittambo BR, Smith JE, Ehlers VJ. Community participation in providing antenatal services in Zimbabwe. Afr J Nurs Midwifery. 2003;5(1):9.
Edmond KM, Yousufi K, Anwari Z. Can community health worker home visiting improve care-seeking and maternal and newborn care practices in fragile states such as Afghanistan? A population-based intervention study. BMC Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1092-9.
Edmond KM, Foshanji AI, Naziri M. Conditional cash transfers to improve use of health facilities by mothers and newborns in conflict affected countries, a prospective population based intervention study from Afghanistan. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2327-2.
Rudasingwa M, Soeters R, Basenya O. The effect of performance-based financing on maternal healthcare use in Burundi: a two-wave pooled cross-sectional analysis. Glob Health Action. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1327241.
Christou A, Alam A, Sadat Hofiani SM, et al. Understanding pathways leading to stillbirth: the role of care-seeking and care received during pregnancy and childbirth in Kabul province, Afghanistan. Women Birth J Aust Coll Midwives. 2020;33(6):544–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2020.02.012.
Kim C, Tappis H, Natiq L, et al. Travel time, availability of emergency obstetric care, and perceived quality of care associated with maternal healthcare utilisation in Afghanistan: a multilevel analysis. Glob Public Health. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2021.1873400.
Jeremiah I, Kasso T, Oriji VK. Patients’ perception of antenatal care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Niger J Med J Natl Assoc Resid Dr Niger. 2012;21(1):66–9.
King S, Passey M, Dickson R. Perceptions and use of maternal health services by women in rural coastal Madang Province. P N G Med J. 2013;56(1–2):5–13.
Hyzam D, Zou M, Boah M, et al. Health information and health-seeking behaviour in Yemen: perspectives of health leaders, midwives and mothers in two rural areas of Yemen. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2020;20(1):404. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03101-9.
Grenier L, Suhowatsky S, Kabue MM. Impact of group antenatal care (G-ANC) versus individual antenatal care (ANC) on quality of care, ANC attendance and facility-based delivery: a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial in Kenya and Nigeria. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(10):1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222177.
Currie S, Natiq L, Anwari Z, Tappis H. Assessing respectful maternity care in a fragile, conflict-affected context: observations from a 2016 national assessment in Afghanistan. Health Care Women Int. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2021.1932890.
Mourtada R, Bashour H, Houben F. A qualitative study exploring barriers to adequate uptake of antenatal care in pre-conflict Syria: low cost interventions are needed to address disparities in antenatal care. Contracept Reprod Med. 2021;6(1):17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40834-021-00156-7.
Udenigwe O, Okonofua FE, Ntoimo LFC, Imongan W, Igboin B, Yaya S. “We have either obsolete knowledge, obsolete equipment or obsolete skills”: policy-makers and clinical managers’ views on maternal health delivery in rural Nigeria. Fam Med Community Health. 2021;9(3):e000994. https://doi.org/10.1136/fmch-2021-000994.
Perry HB, King-Schultz LW, Aftab AS, Bryant JH. Health equity issues at the local level: socio-geography, access, and health outcomes in the service area of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti. Int J Equity Health. 2007;6:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-6-7.
Erismann S, Gami JP, Ouedraogo B, Revault D, Prytherch H, Lechthaler F. Effects of a four-year health systems intervention on the use of maternal and infant health services: results from a programme evaluation in two districts of rural Chad. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):2304. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12330-2.
Ekzayez A, Alhaj Ahmad Y, Alhaleb H, Checchi F. The impact of armed conflict on utilisation of health services in north-west Syria: an observational study. Confl Health. 2021;15(1):91. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-021-00429-7.
Edmond K, Yousufi K, Naziri M. Mobile outreach health services for mothers and children in conflict-affected and remote areas: a population-based study from Afghanistan. Arch Child. 2020;105(1):18–25. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2019-316802.
Nie J, Unger JA, Thompson S, Hofstee M, Gu J, Mercer MA. Does mobile phone ownership predict better utilization of maternal and newborn health services? A cross-sectional study in Timor-Leste. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-0981-1.
O’Keefe D, Davis J, Yakuna G, Van Gemert C, Morgan C. Formal and informal maternal health care: comparing the service provision of health facilities and village health volunteers in East Sepik Province. P N G Med J. 2011;54(3–4):147–53.
Ye M, Bagagan C, Millogo O. Use of mobile phone to promote governance and equity within the health system: experience of rural health district in Burkina Faso. J Heal Commun. 2016;1(3):1–11. https://doi.org/10.4172/2472-1654.100017.
Ouedraogo C, Vosti S, Wessells K, Arnold C, Faye M, Hess S. Out-of-pocket costs and time spent attending antenatal care services: a case study of pregnant women in selected rural communities in Zinder, Niger. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-06027-2.
Samiah S, Stanikzai MH, Wasiq AW, Sayam H. Factors associated with late antenatal care initiation among pregnant women attending a comprehensive healthcare facility in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. Indian J Public Health. 2021;65(3):298–301. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_62_21.