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Table 8 Unadjusted odds ratios of vaccine hesitancy, community members only

From: COVID-19 vaccination in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study of vaccine coverage, hesitancy, and associated risk factors among community members and healthcare workers

Characteristic OR (95% CI)a p value
Sex   < 0.001
 Female  
 Male 0.66 (0.59 to 0.75)  
Age   0.12
 18–39  
 40+ 0.75 (0.52 to 1.08)  
Highest education level   < 0.001
 Primary or none  
 Secondary or College/Vocational 0.51 (0.17 to 1.54)  
 University 0.35 (0.21 to 0.59)  
Have enough information about COVID-19 vaccine   < 0.001
 Yes  
 No or don't know 2.53 (1.48 to 4.32)  
Information needed   
 Eligibility criteria 1.10 (0.43 to 2.85) 0.84
 Timeline for vaccine roll-out 1.01 (0.73 to 1.40) 0.95
 Knowing when it's my turn to get the vaccine 1.61 (1.25 to 2.09) < 0.001
 Doses needed 1.47 (1.08 to 2.01) 0.016
 Risks and side effects 1.15 (0.48 to 2.75) 0.75
 Effectiveness of the vaccines 0.88 (0.71 to 1.08) 0.21
 How to register for the vaccine 1.56 (1.18 to 2.07) 0.002
Common source of information about health and vaccines   
 Health care providers 0.64 (0.47 to 0.86) 0.004
 Community health care workers 0.87 (0.65 to 1.18) 0.37
 Radio 1.48 (1.07 to 2.03) 0.017
 Television 1.41 (0.68 to 2.93) 0.35
 Newspapers 1.17 (0.82 to 1.67) 0.39
 Mass events 2.28 (1.12 to 4.62) 0.023
 Family 1.68 (1.29 to 2.17) < 0.001
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues 1.83 (1.19 to 2.82) 0.006
 Local leaders 0.38 (0.04 to 3.19) 0.37
 Religious leaders 0.51 (0.28 to 0.92) 0.025
 Social media 0.81 (0.67 to 0.98) 0.031
 Organizations 0.41 (0.24 to 0.69) < 0.001
Trusted source of information   
 Health care providers 0.54 (0.46 to 0.65) < 0.001
 Community health care workers 0.95 (0.67 to 1.35) 0.79
 Radio 2.87 (1.99 to 4.14) < 0.001
 Television 1.52 (0.61 to 3.76) 0.37
 Family members 1.75 (1.28 to 2.40) < 0.001
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues 3.05 (1.37 to 6.77) 0.006
 Local leaders 0.02 (0.00 to 0.18) < 0.001
 Religious leaders 2.05 (0.26 to 16.0) 0.49
 Media 1.56 (1.23 to 1.99) < 0.001
 Organizations 0.43 (0.34 to 0.56) < 0.001
 Other 1.65 (1.19 to 2.29) 0.003
Follow social media platforms to get info about vaccine   0.063
 No or don't know  
 Yes 0.78 (0.61 to 1.01)  
Social media platforms used to get info about vaccine   
 Facebook (ref: no) 18.8 (3.81 to 92.8) < 0.001
 Twitter (ref: no) 0.58 (0.30 to 1.11) 0.10
 Instagram (ref: no) 1.10 (0.78 to 1.55) 0.60
 YouTube (ref: no) 0.98 (0.69 to 1.40) 0.93
Shares information related to vaccine on social media network   < 0.001
 No  
 Yes 0.32 (0.21 to 0.50)  
How do you know info about vaccine from social media is true   < 0.001
 I do not verify  
 Other 0.45 (0.34 to 0.58)  
 Verify from reputable website or health care provider 0.25 (0.19 to 0.34)  
Think you can get seriously ill, hospitalized or die if you get COVID-19   < 0.001
 No  
 Don't know 1.20 (0.87 to 1.67)  
 Yes 0.69 (0.50 to 0.97)  
Consider COVID-19 vaccines safe   < 0.001
 No or Don't know  
 Yes 0.03 (0.01 to 0.16)  
 Somewhat 0.20 (0.17 to 0.23)  
  1. Values in bold indicate statistically significant results at p value < 0.05
  2. aOR odds ratio, CI confidence interval