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Table 6 Knowledge, beliefs and other factors associated with vaccine hesitancy, community members only

From: COVID-19 vaccination in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study of vaccine coverage, hesitancy, and associated risk factors among community members and healthcare workers

Characteristic N Vaccine hesitant (unweighted) Vaccine hesitant (weighted)
No, N = 604 (%) Yes, N = 300 (%) p valuea No, N = 925,538 (%) Yes, N = 478,414 (%) p valuea
Received vaccine 904 75.33 0.00 < 0.001 74.46 NA 0.004
Type of vaccine received 455    < 0.001    0.002
 AstraZeneca   0.66 NA   1.42 NA  
 Moderna   17.80 NA   19.91 NA  
 Pfizer   43.52 NA   40.69 NA  
 Sinopharm   2.42 NA   3.04 NA  
 Sputnik   35.16 NA   34.84 NA  
 Unsure   0.44 NA   0.10 NA  
Have enough information about COVID-19 vaccine 904    < 0.001    0.041
 Yes   46.03 28.33   50.15 28.44  
 No or don't know   53.97 71.67   49.85 71.56  
Information needed 903       
 Eligibility criteria   32.17 37.00 0.15 51.51 53.95 0.85
 Timeline for vaccine roll-out   6.80 7.67 0.63 12.48 12.58 0.96
 Knowing when it's my turn to get the vaccine   4.64 8.33 0.027 7.64 11.77 0.035
 Doses needed   17.58 23.00 0.053 22.15 29.47 0.094
 Risks and side effects   83.25 88.33 0.045 87.36 88.84 0.77
 Effectiveness of the vaccines   74.63 74.33 0.92 82.82 80.86 0.30
 How to register for the vaccine   5.64 12.00 < 0.001 8.31 12.40 0.052
Common source of information about health and vaccines 902       
 Health care providers   67.66 57.53 0.003 64.21 53.29 0.062
 Community health care workers   24.71 20.74 0.19 15.29 13.62 0.44
 Radio   10.28 16.39 0.009 11.82 16.54 0.10
 Television   28.19 33.11 0.13 28.23 35.71 0.42
 Newspapers   2.32 3.01 0.54 1.43 1.67 0.45
 Mass events   5.47 9.36 0.029 4.19 9.06 0.10
 Family   21.23 29.10 0.009 29.76 41.55 0.029
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues   29.68 43.48 < 0.001 37.63 52.52 0.070
 Local leaders   2.99 1.67 0.24 3.27 1.26 0.42
 Religious leaders   4.64 2.68 0.16 6.34 3.31 0.11
 Social media   59.37 56.52 0.41 63.19 58.18 0.12
 Organizations   20.40 8.36 < 0.001 22.20 10.42 0.042
Trusted source of information 904       
 Health care providers   74.34 58.33 < 0.001 71.91 58.25 0.006
 Community health care workers   25.83 23.33 0.42 27.23 26.35 0.82
 Local leaders   0.83 0.33 0.39 0.63 0.02 0.012
 Religious leaders   0.99 1.67 0.39 0.61 1.25 0.53
 Family members   3.31 7.33 0.007 5.39 9.07 0.039
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues   3.48 9.00 < 0.001 4.10 11.51 0.065
 Organizations   19.54 9.67 < 0.001 19.21 9.34 0.007
 Media   10.10 18.00 < 0.001 11.55 16.93 0.035
 Radio   2.65 3.00 0.76 1.66 4.66 0.010
 Television   8.77 11.00 0.28 9.47 13.68 0.43
 Other   5.13 8.67 0.040 4.85 7.74 0.058
Trust health providers and CHWs to provide with accurate information about the COVID-19 vaccine 901    < 0.001    0.005
 No or don't know   9.80 23.75   10.63 25.45  
 Yes   66.61 38.13   62.07 34.26  
 Somewhat   23.59 38.13   27.30 40.29  
Follow social media platforms to get info about vaccine 904    0.35    0.16
 No or don't know   23.51 26.33   18.44 22.40  
 Yes   76.49 73.67   81.56 77.60  
Social media platforms used to get info about vaccine 683       
 Facebook   97.62 99.10 0.19 98.69 99.93 0.015
 Twitter   18.61 16.74 0.55 20.50 13.01 0.19
 Instagram   37.88 38.91 0.79 44.86 47.18 0.63
 YouTube   22.51 26.24 0.28 22.41 22.12 0.93
Shares information related to vaccine on social media network 861 23.45 13.17 < 0.001 19.72 7.32 0.014
How do you know info about vaccine from social media is true 904    < 0.001    0.006
 I do not verify   19.04 41.67   20.67 47.49  
 Other   13.41 17.67   15.13 15.51  
 Verify from reputable website or health care provider   67.55 40.67   64.20 37.01  
Do leaders (religious, political, teachers, health care workers) in your community support the COVID-19 vaccines? 525    0.009    0.24
 No or don't know   22.93 33.74   26.10 32.82  
 Yes   77.07 66.26   73.90 67.18  
Most people you know interested in getting the COVID-19 vaccine 904    < 0.001    0.017
 No or don't know   20.53 45.00   20.48 43.45  
 Yes   43.38 14.67   45.64 14.84  
 Somewhat   36.09 40.33   33.88 41.71  
How many people in your community are concerned about COVID-19 in the community 689    0.024    0.35
 Few or some people, less than half   17.78 26.36   25.57 31.84  
 Most people   32.89 31.80   21.55 25.22  
 Some people—more than half   49.33 41.84   52.88 42.94  
COVID-19 vaccines will or are being rolled out equitably in community 900    0.023    0.27
 No or don't know   17.44 23.83   22.19 25.87  
 Yes   82.56 76.17   77.81 74.13  
Knows somebody that had a serious negative reaction to a vaccine that makes them reluctant to get COVID-19 vaccine 903    < 0.001    0.17
 Yes   27.36 40.67   29.41 42.00  
 Somewhat   11.61 15.00   16.56 22.25  
 No or don't know   61.03 44.33   54.03 35.74  
Consider COVID-19 vaccines safe 903    < 0.001    0.007
 No or don't know   28.48 76.25   27.31 74.61  
 Yes   32.62 3.34   30.34 2.33  
 Somewhat   38.91 20.40   42.35 23.07  
Concerned about risks or side effects with COVID-19 vaccines 904    < 0.001    0.003
 No or don't know   30.96 7.67   38.22 7.73  
 Yes   46.36 83.33   41.80 84.02  
 Somewhat   22.68 9.00   19.99 8.25  
Risks or side effects concerned about 692       
 Fever   55.29 51.81 0.37 56.09 58.06 0.76
 Body aches   62.02 61.23 0.83 64.78 66.92 0.49
 Infertility   19.71 30.43 0.001 21.78 36.66 0.014
 Physical disability   19.47 33.33 < 0.001 15.74 30.52 0.009
 Death   39.66 65.58 < 0.001 39.59 64.59 0.073
 Other   13.70 17.39 0.19 19.79 22.26 0.39
Type of COVID vaccine preferred 903    < 0.001    0.004
 Other   0.17 0.00   0.01 0.00  
 No preference   15.07 49.83   17.40 54.43  
 Pfizer   48.01 25.75   44.62 26.85  
 Sputnik   26.49 10.37   28.40 9.47  
 Moderna   4.97 1.67   5.36 1.68  
 Unsure   3.97 11.37   2.15 6.98  
 Sinopharm   1.32 1.00   2.06 0.59  
Believe there are other (better) ways to prevent COVID-19 instead of vaccine 904    < 0.001    0.016
 No or don't know   43.71 16.33   45.34 15.06  
 Yes   38.58 71.33   36.06 68.13  
 Somewhat   17.72 12.33   18.60 16.81  
Better ways to prevent COVID-19 instead of vaccine 447       
 Social distance   85.84 82.24 0.30 87.05 83.35 0.25
 Handwashing   78.97 75.70 0.41 77.05 80.65 0.35
 Infection prevention and control   42.06 47.20 0.28 48.68 54.64 0.27
 Ventilation   45.49 47.66 0.65 48.66 58.59 0.29
 Wearing face masks   80.69 75.70 0.20 78.74 78.79 0.99
Know any person with a serious disease/disability that happened because they were NOT vaccinated 903    0.008    0.22
 Yes   17.41 10.67   20.56 10.40  
 No or don't know   82.59 89.33   79.44 89.60  
Think it is better to get COVID-19 and develop natural immunity than to get the vaccine 903    < 0.001    0.005
 No   55.56 19.00   53.44 17.46  
 Don't know   6.47 9.67   4.75 7.41  
 Yes   23.55 57.33   26.17 58.43  
 Somewhat   14.43 14.00   15.63 16.71  
Remember past events that would discourage them from getting COVID-19 vaccine 449    0.36    0.52
 Yes   32.89 37.33   37.28 40.71  
 No or don't know   67.11 62.67   62.72 59.29  
Think you are at risk to get COVID-19 903    0.11    0.30
 No   9.62 10.33   8.88 10.07  
 Don't know   6.47 10.33   7.16 11.33  
 Yes   83.91 79.33   83.96 78.60  
Think you can get seriously ill, hospitalize or die if you get COVID-19 904    0.014    0.072
 No   42.38 37.33   40.20 41.92  
 Don't know   27.81 37.33   27.96 35.02  
 Yes   29.80 25.33   31.84 23.05  
Barriers for receiving COVID-19 vaccine 448       
 Availability   2.70 3.33 0.72 3.12 1.64 0.15
 Distance to vaccination point   6.08 5.67 0.86 2.55 1.69 0.30
 Cost   0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00  
 Not a priority group   6.08 6.67 0.81 2.17 6.80 0.23
 Lack of information about how/where to get it   20.95 22.33 0.74 22.63 20.45 0.57
 Too stressful   35.14 37.33 0.65 45.28 51.03 0.10
 Staff attitude   3.38 3.33 0.98 3.52 3.26 0.92
 Not socially acceptable   11.49 36.33 < 0.001 11.22 31.03 0.063
 None   10.81 11.00 0.95 17.80 13.73 0.37
Would get/have gotten the vaccine if employer recommended 449    < 0.001    0.089
 No   19.46 43.33   22.32 41.27  
 Unsure   6.71 19.33   4.27 20.53  
 Yes   73.83 37.33   73.41 38.20  
  1. Values in bold indicate statistically significant results at p value < 0.05
  2. aChi-squared test with Rao & Scott's second-order correction