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Table 5 Knowledge, beliefs, and other factors associated with vaccination status, community members only

From: COVID-19 vaccination in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study of vaccine coverage, hesitancy, and associated risk factors among community members and healthcare workers

Characteristic N Received vaccine (unweighted) Received vaccine (weighted)
No, N = 451 (%) Yes, N = 455 (%) p valuea No, N = 715,034 (%) Yes, N = 689,137 (%) p valuea
Vaccine hesitant 904 66.82 0.00 < 0.001 66.93 NA 0.004
Type of vaccine received 455    < 0.001    0.002
 AstraZeneca   NA 0.66   NA 1.42  
 Moderna   NA 17.80   NA 19.91  
 Pfizer   NA 43.52   NA 40.69  
 Sinopharm   NA 2.42   NA 3.04  
 Sputnik   NA 35.16   NA 34.84  
 Unsure   NA 0.44   NA 0.10  
Have enough information about COVID-19 vaccine 906    < 0.001    0.009
 Yes   29.05 50.99   31.30 54.62  
 No or don't know   70.95 49.01   68.70 45.38  
Information needed 905       
 Eligibility criteria   35.70 31.72 0.21 51.46 53.24 0.84
 Timeline for vaccine roll-out   7.76 6.39 0.42 13.80 11.17 0.18
 Knowing when it's my turn to get the vaccine   8.65 3.08 < 0.001 12.34 5.63 0.007
 Doses needed   21.73 16.96 0.070 27.64 21.53 0.057
 Risks and side effects   89.14 80.84 < 0.001 90.57 85.06 0.22
 Effectiveness of the vaccines   74.94 74.01 0.75 82.28 82.00 0.92
 How to register for the vaccine   11.53 3.96 < 0.001 11.82 7.51 0.038
Common source of information about health and vaccines 904       
 Health care providers   58.00 70.26 < 0.001 55.83 65.31 0.21
 Community health care workers   20.89 25.99 0.071 13.18 16.33 0.26
 Radio   14.22 10.35 0.077 13.80 13.03 0.67
 Television   31.33 28.19 0.30 32.92 28.55 0.38
 Newspapers   2.22 2.86 0.54 1.13 1.91 0.072
 Mass events   10.00 3.96 < 0.001 9.15 2.45 0.014
 Family   28.44 19.60 0.002 37.18 30.26 0.12
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues   40.67 27.97 < 0.001 49.73 35.40 0.008
 Local leaders   2.00 3.08 0.30 1.87 3.34 0.27
 Religious leaders   2.67 5.29 0.044 3.59 7.08 0.028
 Social media   60.44 56.39 0.22 61.33 61.64 0.95
 Organizations   10.22 22.47 < 0.001 12.13 24.47 0.10
Trusted source of information 906       
 Health care providers   62.53 75.38 < 0.001 62.60 72.08 0.053
 Community health care workers   23.28 26.59 0.25 24.94 28.99 0.19
 Local leaders   0.89 0.44 0.41 0.44 0.40 0.96
 Religious leaders   1.11 1.32 0.77 0.84 0.83 0.99
 Family members   5.54 3.74 0.20 7.33 5.92 0.24
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues   7.10 3.52 0.016 9.41 3.72 0.10
 Organizations   11.31 21.10 < 0.001 11.25 20.62 0.067
 Media   16.85 8.57 < 0.001 16.37 10.28 0.17
 Radio   2.44 3.08 0.56 3.42 1.93 0.067
 Television   10.42 8.57 0.34 12.31 9.44 0.31
 Other   7.54 5.27 0.16 6.18 5.48 0.61
Trust health providers and CHWs to provide with accurate information about the COVID-19 vaccine 903    < 0.001    0.007
 No or don't know   17.56 11.26   19.29 11.91  
 Yes   49.11 65.12   45.18 60.33  
 Somewhat   33.33 23.62   35.53 27.76  
Follow social media platforms to get info about vaccine 906    > 0.99    0.81
 No or don't know   24.39 24.40   20.28 19.28  
 Yes   75.61 75.60   79.72 80.72  
Social media platforms used to get info about vaccine 685       
 Facebook   99.12 97.09 0.052 99.84 98.33 0.057
 Twitter   15.54 20.35 0.10 13.70 22.45 0.057
 Instagram   39.59 36.63 0.43 45.96 45.26 0.87
 YouTube   22.58 24.71 0.51 20.70 23.95 0.14
Shares information related to vaccine on social media network 863 14.66 25.23 < 0.001 10.56 20.58 0.061
How do you know info about vaccine from social media is true 906    < 0.001    0.003
 I do not verify   34.59 18.68   40.26 18.96  
 Other   16.41 13.19   14.75 15.78  
 Verify from reputable website or health care provider   49.00 68.13   44.98 65.26  
Do leaders (religious, political, teachers, health care workers) in your community support the COVID-19 vaccines? 525    0.061    0.62
 No or don't know   29.96 22.76   29.09 27.26  
 Yes   70.04 77.24   70.91 72.74  
Most people you know interested in getting the COVID-19 vaccine 906    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No or don't know   37.47 19.78   38.12 18.12  
 Yes   22.84 44.84   23.38 47.36  
 Somewhat   39.69 35.38   38.50 34.52  
How many people in your community are concerned about COVID-19 in the community 691    0.022    0.015
 Few or some people, less than half   21.51 19.82   26.57 28.96  
 Most people   36.59 28.23   29.59 15.69  
 Some people—more than half   41.90 51.95   43.84 55.36  
COVID-19 vaccines will or are being rolled out equitably in community 902    0.056    0.17
 No or don't know   22.05 17.00   24.89 21.93  
 Yes   77.95 83.00   75.11 78.07  
Knows somebody that had a serious negative reaction to a vaccine that makes them reluctant to get COVID-19 vaccine 905    < 0.001    0.052
 Yes   37.69 25.99   39.81 27.37  
 Somewhat   13.97 11.45   19.65 17.30  
 No or Don't know   48.34 62.56   40.54 55.34  
Consider COVID-19 vaccines safe 905    < 0.001    0.001
 No or don't know   65.33 23.74   65.82 20.21  
 Yes   8.00 37.58   7.33 34.76  
 Somewhat   26.67 38.68   26.85 45.03  
Concerned about risks or side effects with COVID-19 vaccines 906    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No or don't know   10.42 36.04   11.71 44.56  
 Yes   79.16 38.24   79.35 32.14  
 Somewhat   10.42 25.71   8.93 23.30  
Type of risks or side effects concerned about 693       
 Fever   53.60 54.14 0.89 58.20 54.86 0.56
 Body aches   62.78 60.00 0.46 68.28 61.44 0.28
 Infertility   26.80 20.00 0.039 30.55 24.48 0.11
 Physical disability   30.27 17.93 < 0.001 27.80 12.88 0.007
 Death   60.30 35.52 < 0.001 59.20 36.01 0.035
 Other   16.63 13.10 0.20 22.75 17.73 0.15
Type of COVID vaccine preferred 905    < 0.001    0.001
 Other   0.00 0.22   0.00 0.01  
 No preference   37.78 15.82   41.86 17.75  
 Pfizer   33.56 47.47   33.42 43.90  
 Sputnik   16.22 25.93   15.67 28.45  
 Moderna   1.11 6.59   1.12 7.20  
 Unsure   9.78 3.08   6.49 0.99  
 Sinopharm   1.56 0.88   1.43 1.69  
Believe there are other (better) ways to prevent COVID-19 instead of vaccine 906    < 0.001    0.033
 No or don't know   20.84 48.13   19.11 51.53  
 Yes   65.41 33.63   63.30 30.06  
 Somewhat   13.75 18.24   17.59 18.41  
Better ways to prevent COVID-19 instead of vaccine 448       
 Social distance   83.05 86.27 0.38 83.97 87.96 0.49
 Handwashing   76.61 79.08 0.55 79.04 78.38 0.82
 Infection prevention and control   45.42 42.48 0.55 54.40 45.52 0.15
 Ventilation   47.46 44.44 0.54 56.17 47.86 0.060
 Wearing face masks   76.61 81.70 0.22 76.99 82.66 0.10
Know any person with a serious disease/disability that happened because they were not vaccinated 905    0.25    0.66
 Yes   13.75 16.52   15.84 18.39  
 No or don't know   86.25 83.48   84.16 81.61  
Think it is better to get COVID-19 and develop natural immunity than to get the vaccine 905    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No   25.56 60.88   24.52 58.44  
 Don't know   8.89 6.15   5.88 5.43  
 Yes   51.56 18.46   53.85 19.88  
 Somewhat   14.00 14.51   15.75 16.25  
Remember past events that would discourage them from getting COVID-19 vaccine 451 35.92 NA < 0.001 39.58 NA 0.22
Think you are at risk to get COVID-19     0.36    0.58
 No   8.43 11.23   9.37 9.19  
 Don't know   7.76 7.71   7.90 9.29  
 Yes   83.81 81.06   82.74 81.51  
Think you can get seriously ill, hospitalize or die if you get COVID-19 905    0.034    0.78
 No   36.36 44.84   39.57 42.03  
 Don't know   33.70 28.57   31.40 29.33  
 Yes   29.93 26.59   29.03 28.64  
Barriers to receiving COVID-19 vaccine 450       
 Availability   3.11 NA < 0.001 2.13 NA 0.001
 Distance to vaccination point   5.78 NA < 0.001 1.97 NA < 0.001
 Cost   0.00 NA   0.00 NA  
 Not a priority group   6.67 NA < 0.001 5.29 NA 0.001
 Lack of information about how/where to get it   21.78 NA < 0.001 21.16 NA 0.27
 Too stressful   36.44 NA < 0.001 49.12 NA 0.94
 Staff attitude   3.33 NA < 0.001 3.34 NA  < 0.001
 Not socially acceptable   28.00 NA < 0.001 24.50 NA 0.019
 None   10.89 NA < 0.001 15.06 NA 0.002
Would get/have gotten the vaccine if employer recommended 451    < 0.001    0.030
 No   35.48 NA   35.01 NA  
 Unsure   15.30 NA   15.16 NA  
 Yes   49.22 NA   49.83 NA  
  1. Values in bold indicate statistically significant results at p value < 0.05
  2. aChi-squared test with Rao & Scott's second-order correction