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Table 11 Factors associated with vaccine hesitancy, non-vaccinated community members only (n = 449)

From: COVID-19 vaccination in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study of vaccine coverage, hesitancy, and associated risk factors among community members and healthcare workers

Characteristic N Vaccine hesitant (unweighted) Vaccine hesitant (weighted)
No, N = 149 (%) Yes, N = 300 (%) p valuea No (%) Yes (%) p valuea
Age 449    0.88    0.41
 18–39   63.09 62.33   56.69 62.58  
 40+   36.91 37.67   43.31 37.42  
Sex 449    0.033    0.68
 Female   59.73 49.00   48.40 49.89  
 Male   40.27 51.00   51.60 50.11  
Highest education level 449    0.018    0.41
 Primary or none   5.37 13.33   5.98 14.97  
 Secondary or College/Vocational   49.66 40.00   44.79 41.85  
 University   44.97 46.67   49.24 43.18  
Have enough information about COVID-19 vaccine 449    0.58    0.30
 Yes   30.87 28.33   37.74 28.76  
 No or don't know   69.13 71.67   62.26 71.24  
Information needed 449       
 Eligibility criteria   33.56 37.00 0.47 46.59 53.75 0.58
 Timeline for vaccine roll-out   8.05 7.67 0.89 17.02 12.82 0.35
 When it's my turn to get the vaccine   9.40 8.33 0.71 14.14 12.06 0.59
 Doses needed   19.46 23.00 0.39 25.10 30.53 0.50
 Risks and side effects   90.60 88.33 0.47 94.12 89.80 0.12
 Effectiveness of the vaccines   76.51 74.33 0.62 84.62 81.19 0.27
 How to register for the vaccine   10.74 12.00 0.69 11.05 12.47 0.75
Common source of information about health and vaccines 448       
 Health care providers   59.73 57.53 0.66 62.75 53.21 0.16
 Community health care workers   20.81 20.74 0.99 12.33 13.66 0.54
 Radio   10.07 16.39 0.073 8.61 16.61 0.067
 Television   28.19 33.11 0.29 27.28 35.24 0.43
 Newspapers   0.67 3.01 0.12 0.05 1.71 0.018
 Mass events   10.07 9.36 0.81 9.16 9.03 0.97
 Family   26.17 29.10 0.52 29.06 43.28 0.15
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues   34.90 43.48 0.083 44.04 52.29 0.51
 Local leaders   2.68 1.67 0.47 3.36 1.38 0.51
 Religious leaders   2.68 2.68 > 0.99 4.55 3.41 0.63
 Social media   68.46 56.52 0.015 66.73 58.32 0.058
 Organizations   14.09 8.36 0.061 15.36 10.30 0.17
Trusted source of information 449       
 Health care providers   71.14 58.33 0.009 73.03 58.60 0.14
 Community health care workers   23.49 23.33 0.97 22.87 26.79 0.69
 Local leaders   2.01 0.33 0.075 1.12 0.02 0.012
 Religious leaders   0.00 1.67 0.11 0.00 1.20 0.35
 Family members   2.01 7.33 0.021 4.05 9.51 0.075
 Neighbors, friends, colleagues   3.36 9.00 0.029 4.72 10.81 0.082
 Organizations   14.77 9.67 0.11 14.47 9.17 0.45
 Media   14.77 18.00 0.39 13.40 15.69 0.40
 Radio   1.34 3.00 0.29 0.82 4.70 0.012
 Television   9.40 11.00 0.60 9.12 12.88 0.58
 Other   4.70 8.67 0.13 2.81 7.78 0.069
Trust health providers and CHWs to provide with accurate information about the COVID-19 vaccine 448    < 0.001    0.001
 No or don't know   5.37 23.75   6.66 25.71  
 Yes   71.14 38.13   67.87 33.96  
 Somewhat   23.49 38.13   25.48 40.33  
Follow social media platforms to get info about vaccine 449    0.20    0.15
 No or don't know   20.81 26.33   15.69 22.34  
 Yes   79.19 73.67   84.31 77.66  
Social media platforms used to get info about vaccine 339       
 Facebook   99.15 99.10 0.96 99.67 99.93 0.25
 Twitter   13.56 16.74 0.44 15.49 12.84 0.49
 Instagram   41.53 38.91 0.64 44.09 47.97 0.78
 YouTube   16.10 26.24 0.034 18.32 21.91 0.45
Shares information related to vaccine on social media network 421 17.86 13.17 0.20 16.82 6.94 0.005
How do you know info about vaccine from social media is true 449    < 0.001    0.16
 I do not verify   20.13 41.67   24.76 46.56  
 Other   14.09 17.67   13.72 15.54  
 Verify from reputable website or health care provider   65.77 40.67   61.52 37.90  
Do leaders (religious, political, teachers, health care workers) in your community support the COVID-19 vaccines? 257    0.082    0.45
 No or don't know   23.40 33.74   24.83 32.43  
 Yes   76.60 66.26   75.17 67.57  
Most people you know interested in getting the COVID-19 vaccine 449    < 0.001    0.036
 No or don't know   22.82 45.00   27.78 43.95  
 Yes   38.93 14.67   39.38 14.48  
 Somewhat   38.26 40.33   32.83 41.57  
How many people in your community are concerned about COVID-19 in the community 356    0.003    0.17
 Few or some people, less than half   11.97 26.36   15.20 31.45  
 Most people   46.15 31.80   40.77 26.16  
 Some people—more than half   41.88 41.84   44.03 42.39  
COVID-19 vaccines will or are being rolled out equitably in community 447    0.23    0.63
 No or don't know   18.79 23.83   23.28 26.78  
 Yes   81.21 76.17   76.72 73.22  
Knows somebody that had a serious negative reaction to a vaccine that makes them reluctant to get COVID-19 vaccine 449    0.056    0.26
 Yes   31.54 40.67   34.84 42.93  
 Somewhat   12.08 15.00   14.85 21.93  
 No or don't know   56.38 44.33   50.31 35.14  
Consider COVID-19 vaccines safe 448    < 0.001    0.074
 No or don't know   42.95 76.25   49.16 74.25  
 Yes   17.45 3.34   17.38 2.08  
 Somewhat   39.60 20.40   33.46 23.67  
Concerned about risks or side effects with COVID-19 vaccines 449    0.009    0.14
 No or don't know   15.44 7.67   19.21 7.48  
 Yes   71.14 83.33   69.81 83.79  
 Somewhat   13.42 9.00   10.97 8.73  
Types of risks or side effects concerned about 402       
 Fever   57.94 51.81 0.25 58.26 58.56 0.95
 Body aches   66.67 61.23 0.30 73.25 66.99 0.17
 Infertility   19.05 30.43 0.017 16.85 36.95 0.068
 Physical disability   23.02 33.33 0.037 23.34 31.23 0.090
 Death   49.21 65.58 0.002 47.90 64.35 0.17
 Other   15.08 17.39 0.56 23.16 21.99 0.74
Type of COVID vaccine preferred 448       
 Other   0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00  
 No preference   12.75 49.83   17.25 53.89  
 Pfizer   49.66 25.75   47.01 27.47  
 Sputnik   28.19 10.37   27.00 9.54  
 Moderna   0.00 1.67   0.00 1.73  
 Unsure   6.71 11.37   5.48 6.75  
 Sinopharm   2.68 1.00   3.26 0.63  
Believe there are other (better) ways to prevent COVID-19 instead of vaccine 449    < 0.001    0.039
 No or don't know   30.20 16.33   28.51 15.14  
 Yes   53.69 71.33   51.93 67.67  
 Somewhat   16.11 12.33   19.56 17.19  
Better ways to prevent COVID-19 instead of vaccine 294       
 Social distance   85.00 82.24 0.58 86.75 84.33 0.67
 Handwashing   78.75 75.70 0.58 75.60 81.53 0.45
 Infection prevention and control   41.25 47.20 0.36 57.90 55.56 0.83
 Ventilation   47.50 47.66 0.98 52.95 59.28 0.60
 Wearing face masks   78.75 75.70 0.58 73.25 79.59 0.25
Know any person with a serious disease/disability that happened because they were NOT vaccinated 449    0.006    0.13
 Yes   20.13 10.67   26.73 10.22  
 No or don't know   79.87 89.33   73.27 89.78  
Think it is better to get COVID-19 and develop natural immunity than to get the vaccine 448    < 0.001    0.18
 No   39.19 19.00   39.21 17.81  
 Don't know   7.43 9.67   2.94 7.63  
 Yes   39.19 57.33   43.45 57.73  
 Somewhat   14.19 14.00   14.39 16.83  
Remember past events that would discourage them from getting COVID-19 vaccine 449 32.89 37.33 0.36 35.22 40.21 0.47
Think you are at risk to get COVID-19 449    0.001    0.22
 No   4.70 10.33   7.73 9.80  
 Don't know   2.68 10.33   0.89 11.49  
 Yes   92.62 79.33   91.38 78.72  
Think you can get seriously ill, hospitalized or die if you get COVID-19 449    0.004    0.010
 No   34.90 37.33   34.33 41.62  
 Don't know   25.50 37.33   23.76 35.17  
 Yes   39.60 25.33   41.90 23.20  
Barriers for receiving COVID-19 vaccine 448       
 Availability   2.70 3.33 0.72 3.39 1.75 0.11
 Distance to vaccination point   6.08 5.67 0.86 2.88 1.62 0.21
 Cost   0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00  
 Not a priority group   6.08 6.67 0.81 2.52 7.11 0.27
 Lack of information about how/where to get it   20.95 22.33 0.74 19.50 19.06 0.90
 Too stressful   35.14 37.33 0.65 43.82 50.20 0.091
 Staff attitude   3.38 3.33 0.98 3.55 3.39 0.95
 Not socially acceptable   11.49 36.33 < 0.001 11.07 30.41 0.078
 None   10.81 11.00 0.95 19.09 14.42 0.39
Would get/have gotten the vaccine if employer recommended 449    < 0.001    0.092
 No   19.46 43.33   22.43 40.43  
 Unsure   6.71 19.33   4.12 21.32  
 Yes   73.83 37.33   73.44 38.25  
  1. Values in bold indicate statistically significant results at p value < 0.05
  2. aChi-squared test with Rao & Scott's second-order correction