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Table 1 Thematic areas investigated in analysis

From: COVID-19 vaccination in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study of vaccine coverage, hesitancy, and associated risk factors among community members and healthcare workers

Primary outcome measures and determinants


Primary outcome: vaccination status

Vaccinated: defined as an adult member of the household 18 years or older who received at least one dose of any COVID-19 vaccine prior to the survey

Primary outcome: vaccine hesitancy

Vaccine hesitant: defined as lack of intent to receive a COVID-19 vaccinea

Demographic variables




Highest level of education

Health care worker versus community member

Information sources and needs

Perception of adequate information on COVID-19 vaccine

Information needs (eligibility, timeline, side effects, effectiveness, registration)

Current information sources (HCWs, CHWs, radio, television, newspapers, social media, friends and colleagues, local leaders, religious leaders, civil society organizations)

Trusted sources (HCWs, CHWs, local leaders, religious leaders, family, neighbors and relatives, organizations, media, radio, television)

Use of social media and types

Sharing information on social media

Perceived risk

Self-perceived risk to get COVID-19 infection

Self-perceived risk to develop severe disease following COVID-19 infection

Perception of safety of the COVID-19 vaccine

Past event with a vaccine dissuades from receiving the vaccine

Knowledge of someone with severe outcome from not being vaccinated

Preference for herd immunity/natural immunity

Belief in better ways to prevent COVID-19 than the vaccine

  1. HCWs healthcare workers, CHWs community health workers
  2. aThis survey item was operationalized through the question, “If you could get a COVID-19 vaccine this week, would you get it?” based on the recommended SAGE questionnaire. This question had three possible responses (yes, no, unsure). In the primary analysis, the vaccinated and unvaccinated population were pooled and respondents were classified as “vaccine hesitant” if they met both of two criteria: (1) did not previously receive the vaccine and (2) answered “no” or “unsure” to the question. the In sub-analysis, the same response categories were used to classify hesitancy, but data were restricted to the study’s non-vaccinated population