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Table 4 Triangulation of data from document reviews and interviews

From: Conducting public health surveillance in areas of armed conflict and restricted population access: a qualitative case study of polio surveillance in conflict-affected areas of Borno State, Nigeria

Construct Sub Construct Documents Interviews Level of Agreement
Inhibitors Inaccessibility Discussed by most* Discussed by most High
Communication Discussed by one Discussed by most High
Health Infrastructure Discussed by some Discussed by most High
Overall Infrastructure Discussed by one Discussed by most High
Population movement Discussed by most Discussed by most High
Traumatizing violence Discussed by some Discussed by most High
Malnutrition and disease outbreaks Discussed by most Discussed by most High
Rainy season Not discussed Discussed by most NA*
Nomadic population Not discussed Discussed by some NA
Strategies Community informants Not discussed Discussed by most NA
GIS technology Discussed by some Discussed by most High**
Collection and testing of specimens beyond AFP cases Discussed by some Discussed by most High
Collaboration with security forces Discussed by some Discussed by most High
Profiling of displaced people Discussed by some Discussed by some High
Evacuation Not discussed Discussed by most NA
Nomadic population Not discussed Discussed by some NA
Monitoring systems Tailored surveillance performance indicators for inaccessible areas Not discussed Discussed by most NA
Tailored surveillance quality assessment tools Not discussed Discussed by some NA
Collaboration and information sharing systems   Discussed by some Discussed by most High**
  1. Note: “discussed by most” means that the majority of the documents or interviewers discussed the construct. “Discussed by some” means that at least two (but less than half) discussed it. High agreement means that the information was consistent with good agreement in the information provided. For example, for the inaccessibility construct, there was agreement across documents that there were many thousands of inaccessible people in many thousands of inaccessible settlements, and also that the size of the inaccessible population decreased considerably the over time from 2016–2018. While the exact numbers differ slightly, this aligns well with the information provided by the interview respondents
  2. *Not applicable
  3. **Interviewees provided additional information not found in the documents