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Table 6 Comparison of nested MIMIC models to assess differential item functioning of core stigma items

From: Measuring sexual violence stigma in humanitarian contexts: assessment of scale psychometric properties and validity with female sexual violence survivors from Somalia and Syria

  Pathway from country to item Likelihood ratio test of constrained and full model*
“Feeling detached” “Blaming yourself” “Feeling rejected” “Feeling stigma”
Full model − 0.482 (0.135), 0.000 − 0.488 (0.140), 0.000 0.254 (0.121), 0.035 0.370 (0.115), 0.001
Constrained model 1 INVARIANTa − 0.398 (0.137), 0.004 0.363 (0.119), 0.002 0.480 (0.115), 0.000 12.672 (df 1), p = 0.002
Constrained model 2 − 0.395 (0.132), 0.003 INVARIANT 0.363 (0.122), 0.003 0.480 (0.114), 0.000 12.122 (df 1), p = 0.002
Constrained model 3 − 0.526 (0.132), 0.000 − 0.532 (0.140), 0.000 INVARIANT 0.316 (0.113), 0.005 4.431 (df 1), p = 0.1412
Constrained model 4 − 0.553 (0.133), 0.000 − 0.559 (0.137), 0.000 0.167 (0.119), 0.161 INVARIANT 10.453 (df 1), p = 0.005
  1. aThe pathway from country to this item was not estimated, as it was treated as invariant in this model
  2. *p values have been multiplied by the number of tests (n = 4) as a Bonferroni correction