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Table 3 Socio-economic inequality decomposition in the probability of healthcare utilization by need, consumption, and other non-need factors

From: Inequity and benefit incidence analysis in healthcare use among Syrian refugees in Egypt

Variables Concentration index of covariates (Ci,K) Total healthcare utilization
Outpatient services Inpatient services
Elasticity (b) Contribution towards inequality (Ci,K) * b)/CI Elasticity (b) Contribution towards inequality (Ci,K) * b)/CI
Need factors
 Age 0.0180 0.0645 1% 0.2524 23.1%**
 Gender (male) 0.0067 − 0.1492 − 1%*** − 0.4497 − 15.4%***
 Disabilityb 0.0735 0.0014 0.2% 0.0037 1%
 NCD − 0.0146 0.4059 − 6.3%*** 0.0735 − 5.5%**
Non-need factors
 Urban 0.0086 − 0.2478 − 2.3%* − 0.0092 − 0.4%
 Governorates (Greater-Cairo) − 0.0248 − 0.0295 1% 0.1993 − 25%
 Household size − 0.0221 − 0.2479 6%** − 0.2997 33.7%*
 Education (Head of household) 0.0207 0.0488 1.1% − 0.1917 − 20%
 Duration in the country − 0.0009 0.2020 − 0.2%* 0.6526 − 3%***
 Knowledge − 0.0385 0.0148 − 0.6% − 0.0204 4%
 Employment (Head of household) 0.0038 − 0.0309 − 0.1% 0.1233 2.4%
Per-capita consumption 0.2874 0.1799 54.4%*** 0.0128 18.7%
Wagstaff’s Index (CIW) 0.095 0.02
Erreygers’ Index (CIE) 0.079 0.006
  1. Bold is used to highlight the main findings and used in the discussion
  2. Italics used for another correction of the CI, added for comparaison
  3. CI concentration index; CIs are Wagstaff normalized indices. Erreygers’ Index = (4μ/b − a) * CI, where, a and b are upper and lower limits of the health variable, CI is the standard concentration index, and μ is the mean of the health variable. CIE = 4μ(1 − μ)CIW
  4. bElasticity (b)=(βimXj/μ) , indicates the impact of each determinant on the desired health outcome
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001