Skip to main content

Table 3 Violence against women results

From: Mental health of women and children experiencing family violence in conflict settings: a mixed methods systematic review

Author Prevalence of family violence Prevalence of a mental health problem Evidence of association between family violence and mental health problem
Avdibegovic (2006) [37]
Bosnia and Herzegovina
78.9% experienced physical abuse, 60.5% experienced sexual abuse and 96.1% experienced psychological abuse General neuroticism measured by Cornell Index test was high in 26 and moderate in 30 out of 76 survivors of domestic violence 76% of participants experiencing domestic abuse had symptoms of neurosis
General levels of neurosis = 43% (IQR 25.3, 62.3), Anxiety = 64% (IQR 36.0, 73.0), Phobia = 57% (IQR 29.0, 86.0), Depression = 50% (IQR 0.0, 86.0), Obsessive–compulsive tendencies = 50% (IQR 17.0, 67.0)
Gupta (2014) [16]
Côte d’Ivoire
Women experiencing lifetime IPV: 26.5%
Past year IPV: 23.4%
Of the women who experienced no IPV, 9.2% had probable PTSD
Of the women who experienced IPV within the lifetime, but not within the past year 12.3% had probable PTSD
22.1% of the women who experienced past year had probable PTSD
Adjusted OR, for lifetime IPV prior to the past year and PTSD = 1.6 (95% CI 0.9, 2.6)
For past year IPV and PTSD = 3.1 (95% CI 1.8, 5.3)
Heath (2012) [26]
Palestine
At 18 month follow up: 23.8% reported being insulted, 20.4% pushed/shoved, 14.4% threatened, and 18.3% hit   
Hossain (2014) [39]
Côte d’Ivoire
IPV among ever-partnered: 29.1% reported life-time sexual violence, 14.9% in the last 12 months
38.4% reported life-time physical violence, 20.9% in the last 12 months
23.9% reported severe life-time physical violence. 11.6% in the last 12 months
49.8% reported life-time physical and/or sexual violence. 29.7% in the last 12 months
  
Jewkes (2018) [13]
Afghanistan
Past 12 months physical IPV: Of the women who had no exposure to trauma, 17.7% reported IPV, of those who had 1 trauma exposure; 27.6% reported IPV, and for those who had 2–4 trauma exposures, 25.1% reported IPV (p = 0.006)
Lifetime physical risk IPV: Of the women who had no exposure to trauma; 28.1% reported lifetime IPV, among women who had 1 trauma exposure, 47.0% reported lifetime IPV, and for those who had 2–4 trauma exposures, 44.6% reported lifetime IPV (p < 0.0001)
  Depression: Of the women who had no exposure to trauma; 12.05% reported depression. Of the women with 1 trauma exposure 16.25% reported depression, and of the women who had 2–4 trauma exposures, 17.1% reported depression (p < 0.0001)
PTSD: Of the women who had no exposure to trauma 1.35% had PTSD. Of the women with 1 trauma exposure 1.7% had PTSD. Of the women who had 2–4 trauma exposures 1.65% had PTSD (p < 0.0001)
Johnson (2010) [44]
Democratic Republic of Congo
30.5% reported IPV. Of this group, 96% reported physical IPV and 8.5% reported sexual IPV 21.4% reported substance abuse. 41.9% had MDD, 54.0% had PTSD, 27.3% had suicidal ideation and 16.8% reported a suicide attempt 20.5% (95% CI 12.0, 29.0) of women affected by IPV suffered from substance abuse, 64.9% (95% CI 52.3, 77.5) suffered from MDD, 77.2% (95% CI 66.8, 87.7) suffered from PTSD, 42.4% (95% CI 28.9, 56.0) suffered from suicidal ideation, and 33.1% (95% CI 22.9, 43.4) reported a suicide attempt
Kane (2018) [51]
Iraq
36.3% domestic violence, 2.4% sexual assault Depression: HPS-25 M = 1.54 (SD 0.54) p < 0.0001, Post-traumatic stress: HTS M = 1.24 (SD 0.50) p < 0.0001 Linear Regression Beta Coefficient for domestic violence and depression 0.30 (p < 0.0001); and anxiety (p < 0.05)
No association with post-traumatic stress
Kinyanda (a) (2013) [49]
Uganda
34.5% reported exposure to IPV 14.7% reported problem drinking, 47.9% reported depressive disorder  
Kinyanda (2016) [48]
Uganda
44.9% reported any form of IPV
7.8% reported sexual IPV
22.9% reported physical IPV
44.2% reported psychological IPV
  Adjusted OR for probable major depressive disorder: physical IPV 1.41 (95% CI 0.96, 2.07), psychological IPV 0.97 (95% CI 0.68, 1.39), sexual IPV 2.15 (95% CI 1.09, 4.23)
Rees (2016) [45] Timor-Leste 30.6% reported severe psychological abuse (threatening, intimidation and controlling)
6.2% reported physical abuse only
19.5% reported combined severe psychological and physical abuse
19.7% met the EPDS threshold for depressive
symptoms, 5.7% for PTSD symptoms and 6.3% for psychological distress
Adjusted OR for IPV and Depression EPDS: Severe psychological abuse 1.61 (95% CI 1.17, 2.23). Physical abuse 2.27 (95% CI 1.37, 3.77). Severe psychological and physical abuse 4.3 (95% CI 3.12, 5.96)
Adjusted OR for IPV and PTSD: Severe psychological abuse 1.26 (95% CI 0.71, 2.24). Physical abuse 2.20 (95% CI 0.96, 5.04). Severe psychological and physical abuse 3.24 (95% CI 1.90, 5.50)
Adjusted OR for IPV and Psychological Distress (Kessler-10 indice): Severe psychological abuse 1.09 (95% CI 0.59, 2.03). Physical abuse 2.08 (95% CI 0.87, 5.01). Severe psychological and physical abuse 5.32 (95% CI 3.20, 8.87)
Shuman (2016) [30] Cote d’Ivoire 53.6% reported exposure to physical, sexual or emotional IPV in the past year. Of the types of violence, 46.4% reported emotional IPV, 21.7% reported sexual IPV and 17.4% reported physical IPV. 29% reported physical and/or sexual IPV in past year
Among partnered women only 14.5% reported being pushed, shoved, kicked or dragged. 13% reported being slapped, having something thrown at them or being hit with something. 15.9% reported being forced to have sex as result of threats or intimidation, 11.6% reported being physically forced to have sex, 36.2% reported being frightened or humiliated
10.9% faced mental health repercussions (undefined)  
Sriskandarajah (2015) [41]
Sri Lanka
70.3% reported IPV in the past year, 3.4 (SD 4.2) IPV-related events in the past year 27.9% of mothers met criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD  
Usta (2008) [50]
Lebanon
27% reported at least one incident of domestic abuse during conflict. 13% reported at least one incidence perpetrated by a husband or other family member   Correlation between negative mental health score and domestic violence during conflict: 0.21 p < 0.001
Correlation between negative mental health score and domestic violence after conflict: 0.14 p < 0.01
Vinck (2013) [38]
Liberia
Among adult women, 37.7% (95% CI, 34.9, 40.5) reported lifetime exposure to intimate-partner physical violence. 24.4% (95% CI 22.1, 26.9) reported incidence of intimate-partner physical violence over a one-year recall period
Women were 3.3 times more likely than men to report having experienced a severe beating by a spouse or partner
18.8% reported PTSD symptoms
17.6% reported depression symptoms
 
  1. CI, Confidence Interval; CMD, Common Mental Health Disorders; CTS, Conflict Tactics Score; EPDS, Edinburgh Depression Scale, GAD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder; HPS-25, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25; HTS, Harvard Trauma Scale; IQR, Interquartile range; MDD, Major Depressive Disorder; OR, Odds ratio; SD, Standard Deviation; SRQ-20, Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20