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Table 1 Sociocultural and demographic characteristics and univariate analysis by types of health zones (n = 1440)

From: Comparative analysis of the health status of the population in six health zones in South Kivu: a cross-sectional population study using the WHODAS

Variables Accessible and
stable (AS)
Remote and
stable (RS)
Intermediate (I) Unstable
(U)
p(*)(**)
Age (year) 38 (25–52) 32 (25–42) 31 (23–46) 37 (26–53) p(I/LE) = 1 et p (RS/C) = 1
Sex
 Male 195 (40.7) 100 (42.0) 92 (38.3) 211 (44) p = 0.5 2 décimales?
 Female 284 (59.3) 138 (5.08) 148 (61.7) 269 (56) P = 0.5
Marital statues
 Never married 112 (23.4) 33 (13.8) 39 (16.4) 96 (20) p (RS/LE) = 0.01
 Married 308 (64.4) 174 (72.5) 162 (68.1) 308 (64.2) p > 0.05
 Separated or divorced 8 (1,7) 7 (2.9) 17 (7.1) 29 (6) p(I;C/RS) = 0.001/0.003
 Widower 50 (10.5) 26 (10.8) 20 (8.4) 47 (9.8) p > 0.05
Tribe
 Shi and Havu 396 (82.7) 155 (65.1) 27 (11.3) 6 (1.3) p (RS;LE/C;I) = < 0.001
 Rega 27 (5.6) 1 (0.4) 35 (14.6) 236 (49.5) p(C;I/RS;LE) = < 0.001
 Bembe 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 114 (23.9) /
 Tembo 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 58 (24.3) 0 (0) p(I/RS) = < 0.001
 Others 55 (11.5) 121 (25.4) 119 (49.8) 121 (25.4) p(I/RS;LE;C) = < 0.001
Religion
 Catholic 306 (63.7) 81 (34) 73 (30.4) 161 (33.6) p (RS/LE;I;C) = < 0.001
 Protestant 158 (32.9) 141 (59.8) 123 (51.2) 253 (52.8) p (LE;I;C/RS) = < 0.001
 Muslim 10 (2.1) 0 (0) 7 (2.9) 43 (9) p(C/RS;I) = < 0.001/0.008
 Others 6 (1.3) 16 (6.7) 37 (15.4) 22 (4.6) p (LE;I;C/RS) = < 0.001and p(I/LE;C) = < 0.001/0.15
Respondent’s occupation
 Formal employee 76 (15.9) 11 (4.6) 23 (9.6) 35 (7.3) p (RS/LE;C) = < 0.001
 Occasional work 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.4) 18 (3.8) p(C/I) = 0.009
 Small business 104 (21.7) 131 (54.8) 126 (52.7) 278 (58) p (LE;I;C/RS) = < 0.001
 Farmer 54 (11.3) 40 (16.7) 17 (7.1) 51 (10.6) p (LE/I) = 0.007
 Unemployed 245 (51.1) 57 (23.8) 72 (30.1) 97 (20.3) p (SA/LE;I;C) = < 0.001 and p(I/C) = 0.02
Number of adults in the household 4 (2–5) 2 (2–3) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) P (SE/C) = 0.29 and p(C/I) = 0.42
Type of housing
 Temporary 232 (48.3) 112 (46.9) 125 (52.1) 294 (61.4) P(C/RS;LE) = < 0.001/0.001
 Semi-permanent 197 (42) 79 (33.1) 91 (37.9) 122 (25.5) P (RS;I/C) = < 0.001/0.003
 Permanent 51 (10.6) 48 (20.1) 24 (10) 63 (13.2) P (LE/RS;I) = 0.003/0.012
Number of children < 5 years old in the household 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) P (RS/LE) = 1 and p(C/I) = 1
Socio-economic status
 Low 197 (41) 84 (35) 180 (37.5) 182 (37.9) p(I/LE) = 0.04
 Medium 180 (37.5) 102 (42.5) 80 (33.3) 233 (48.5) p(C/RS;I) = 0.03/0.001
 High 103 (21.5) 54 (22.5) 47 (19.6) 65 (13.5) p (RS;LE/C) = 0.007/0.01
Membership of a local saving association
 No 450 (93.8) 135 (56.3) 190 (79.5) 423 (88.1) p (RS/LE;I;C) = < 0.05 and p(C/LE;I) = < 0.05
 Yes 30 (6.3) 105 (43.8) 49 (20.5) 57 (11.9) p (LE/RS;I;C) = < 0.001 and p(I/RS;C) = < 0.05
  1. Data are n (%) and median (interquartile range)
  2. The bar (/) means that the conditions for applying the test are not met
  3. For continuous variables, all p-values of the Kruskall-Wallis test were < 0.001. Therefore, we presented in the table the p-value not significant for the tests two by two (Wilcoxson test with Bonferroni correction). For the categorical variables, all the proportions were different on the Chi-square test except for sex. We represent in the table the p value of the Z comparison test of column proportions with Bonferroni correction. Eg: p (RS / LE) = 0.01 means that the proportion of people “Never married” in accessible stable health zones is statistically higher than the proportion of people “Never married” in remote and stable health zones; but that it is identical to the proportion of people “Never married” in intermediate health zones and in crisis