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Table 4 Change Diabetes Care Utilization and in Clinical Measurements

From: Improving diabetes control for Syrian refugees in Jordan: a longitudinal cohort study comparing the effects of cash transfers and health education interventions

  UNADJUSTED CHANGE ADJUSTED CHANGE a
MPC CHV only CHV + CCT 3 groupcomp.P-value MPC CHV only CHV + CCT 3 group comp. P-value
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Diabetes Care Utilization
 Regular diabetes care visits −7.1% (−16.3,2.1) −2.8% (− 13.4,7.8) 15.3% (5.9,24.7) 0.002 −4.9% (−14.5,4.7) −0.5% (−11.9,10.9) 15.1% (5.4,24.8) 0.008
 Regular care not sought b/c of cost −4.4% (−12.5,3.6) −3.0% (−9.1,3.0) 2.2% (−0.9,5.3) 0.138 −5.4% (−13.6,2.8) − 3.4% (− 10.3,3.6) 2.1% (− 1.6,5.7) 0.140
Health Provider Visits b
 General Practitioner 2.2% (−6.2,10.5) 3.5% (−7.8,14.8) 8.3% (0.6,15.9) 0.548 0.9% (−7.8,9.6) 1.7% (−10.0,13.3) 7.9% (−0.1,15.9) 0.425
 Other doctor/specialist 2.7% (−8.9,14.4) −25.6% (−38.7,-12.6) 19.2% (9.5,28.8) < 0.001 1.8% (−10.3,13.9) −27.8% (−41.5,-14.0) 16.8% (6.6,27.0) < 0.001
 Pharmacist −6.4% (−16.3,3.6) −24.1% (−37.5,-10.7) −11.2% (−20.2,-2.2) 0.112 −6.1% (−16.1,4.0) −24.1% (−37.9,-10.4) − 12.7% (− 22.2,-3.2) 0.106
 Hospital Visit −2.4% (−11.5,6.8) − 11.1% (− 22.1,-0.1) −0.9% (−9.1,7.3) 0.321 −3.3% (− 12.9,6.2) − 11.5% (−22.9,-0.1) −1.6% (− 10.6,7.3) 0.359
 Provider selected for cost-related reasons −5.4% (−15.7,4.9) 0.3% (− 14.0,14.7) − 25.5% (− 35.4,-15.7) 0.003 − 4.1% (−14.9,6.7) 1.9% (−12.8,16.7) −22.8% (− 33.5,-12.2) 0.007
 Did not receive all needed care due to cost c −2.9% (−14.6,8.8) −5.0% (− 19.2,9.2) − 25.2% (− 35.3,-15.2) 0.008 −3.6% (− 15.6,8.4) −6.4% (− 21.5,8.7) −26.2% (− 36.7,-15.7) 0.009
Body Mass Index (BMI)
 BMI (mean) − 0.7 (−1.4,-0.1) − 0.4 (− 1.1,0.3) − 0.8 (−1.4,-0.1) 0.698 − 0.6 (− 1.3,0.0) −0.7 (− 1.5,0.1) −1.0 (− 1.7,-0.3) 0.728
 Normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2) 0.9% (− 1.1,2.8) 3.0% (− 1.6,7.6) 0.7% (−2.5,3.8) 0.681 0.6% (−1.6,2.8) 3.2% (−1.5,7.9) 0.9% (−2.7,4.5) 0.607
 Overweight (BMI 25–29 kg/m2) 7.0% (1.4,12.5) 0.4% (−6.6,7.4) −0.6% (−6.8,5.6) 0.150 4.5% (−1.4,10.4) −1.2% (−8.5,6.1) − 1.8% (− 8.5,5.0) 0.281
 Obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) −7.9% (− 13.5,-2.3) −3.4% (−10.2,3.4) 0.0% (− 5.9,5.8) 0.163 − 5.1% (− 11.0,0.8) −2.0% (− 8.8,4.8) 0.9% (− 5.5,7.3) 0.365
Blood Glucose
 HbA1C (mean %) −0.2 (−0.4,0.0) − 0.6 (− 0.8,-0.3) −0.4 (− 0.6,− 0.2) 0.073 -0.2 (− 0.5,0.0) −0.7 (− 1.1,-0.4) − 0.5 (− 0.7,-0.3) 0.032
 HbA1C < 7.0% 4.2% (− 2.4,10.8) 6.0% (− 2.1,14.1) 9.2% (2.3,16.1) 0.582 5.4% (−1.5,12.2) 9.1% (0.1,18.0) 11.7% (4.4,19.1) 0.427
 HbA1C = 7.0–7.9% 0.4% (−7.0,7.9) 1.1% (−6.5,8.7) −2.0% (− 9.0,5.1) 0.827 0.1% (−7.6,7.8) 0.3% (−7.8,8.5) −2.8% (−9.9,4.4) 0.806
 HbA1C ≥ 8.0% −4.7% (−11.1,1.8) −7.1% (−15.3,1.2) −7.3% (− 13.7,-0.9) 0.831 −5.4% (− 12.1,1.3) −9.4% (− 18.7,-0.1) − 9.0% (− 15.8,-2.1) 0.682
Blood Pressure (BP)
 Systolic blood pressure (mean) −2.6 (−5.9,0.7) −1.3 (−4.6,2.0) − 1.3 (− 4.0,1.3) 0.816 − 2.3 (− 5.7,1.1) −0.9 (−4.4,2.6) − 0.4 (−3.3,2.5) 0.676
 Diastolic blood pressure (mean) − 1.8 (−3.6,0.0) −2.9 (− 5.2,-0.6) − 3.7 (− 5.5,-1.8) 0.354 −1.6 (− 3.5,0.3) − 2.5 (− 5.0,0.0) −3.3 (− 5.3,-1.3) 0.463
 Normal BP (< 140/90) 8.5% (0.2,16.7) 5.8% (−3.4,15.1) 12.0% (4.3,19.8) 0.588 8.4% (−0.1,16.8) 6.2% (−3.9,16.2) 11.3% (3.2,19.4) 0.704
 High BP (> 140/90) −8.5% (−16.7,-0.2) −5.8% (−15.1,3.4) − 12.0% (− 19.8,-4.3) 0.588 − 8.4% (− 16.8,0.1) −6.2% (− 16.2,3.9) −11.3% (− 19.4,-3.2) 0.704
  1. Bold italic indicates statistically significant (P < 0.001) findings; bold indicates statistically significant (P < 0.05) findings; italic indicates statistically significant (P < 0.10) findings. P-values are for three group comparison of magnitude of change during the study period. a Adjusted analyses controlled for participant sex, age, education level, and marital status; household size and the presence of more than one UNHCR registration case; prior diagnoses of hypertension, other chronic NCD diagnoses, and years since initial diabetes diagnosis; total household expenditure in the prior month; and receipt of humanitarian assistance, specifically the total value of cash assistance received in the prior month, and current WFP beneficiary status/transfer modality (voucher or Choice); b % with ≥1 visit in the past 6 months; c at most recent care visit