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Table 3 Change in Health Expenditures for Diabetes Care and Maintenance (in log US$)

From: Improving diabetes control for Syrian refugees in Jordan: a longitudinal cohort study comparing the effects of cash transfers and health education interventions

  UNADJUSTED CHANGE ADJUSTED CHANGE a
MPC CHV only CHV + CCT P-value MPC CHV only CHV + CCT P-value
Point Est. (95% CI) Point Est (95% CI) Point Est (95% CI) Point Est (95% CI) Point Est (95% CI) Point Est (95% CI)
Most Recent Health Facility Payments for Outpatient Diabetes Care b
 Any payment at last visit (%) −4.7% (−14.2,4.8) − 9.8% (− 20.6,1.0) 26.8% (18.9,34.7) < 0.001 −5.8% (−15.5,3.9) −9.0% (− 20.6,2.5) 25.3% (16.8,33.9) < 0.001
 Total paid at facility for visit b −0.5 (−1.7,0.7) −1.1 (−2.5,0.3) 1.6 (0.7,2.5) 0.002 −0.8 (−2.0,0.4) −1.1 (−2.6,0.4) 1.2 (0.2,2.2) 0.007
Average Monthly Medication Costs
Medication for All Conditions
  Any medication costs (%) 1.4% (−4.8,7.7) 1.7% (−5.5,9.0) 15.7% (9.6,21.8) 0.002 0.3% (−6.2,6.9) 0.8% (−7.1,8.7) 13.6% (7.2,19.9) 0.005
  Average monthly medication costs c 0.1 (−0.6,0.9) 0.1 (−0.9,1.0) 2.3 (1.5,3.1) < 0.001 0.0 (−0.8,0.8) −0.1 (−1.1,0.9) 2.0 (1.2,2.8) < 0.001
Medication for Diabetes
  Any diabetes medication costs (%) 3.8% (−4.5,12.1) −16.1% (−26.9,-5.3) 10.0% (2.2,17.9) 0.001 1.4% (−7.2,9.9) − 18.7% (−30.2,-7.2) 7.0% (−1.4,15.3) 0.001
  Average monthly medication costs c 0.4 (−0.5,1.4) −2.1 (−3.4,-0.8) 1.4 (0.5,2.4) < 0.001 0.1 (−0.9,1.1) − 2.4 (−3.8,-1.0) 1.0 (0.0,2.0) < 0.001
Blood Glucose Monitoring Supplies d
  Any monitoring supply costs (%) 15.1% (7.7,22.6) 14.9% (5.1,24.8) 40.8% (32.2,49.3) < 0.001 16.1% (8.4,23.7) 13.6% (3.3,23.9) 39.2% (30.3,48.1) < 0.001
  Average monthly supply costs c 1.8 (1.0,2.7) 1.8 (0.6,3.0) 5.2 (4.1,6.2) < 0.001 1.9 (1.0,2.9) 1.6 (0.4,2.9) 5.0 (3.9,6.1) < 0.001
Routine Spending on Health
  Health Expenditures (past month) e −0.6 (− 1.1,0.0) 0.4 (− 0.2,1.0) 0.5 (0.2,0.7) 0.004 − 0.7 (− 1.3,-0.2) 0.4 (− 0.3,1.0) 0.2 (− 0.1,0.5) 0.008
  Sold assets to pay for health f −4.7% (−8.8,-0.6) − 0.9% (− 8.4,6.6) −5.0% (− 11.2,1.3) 0.656 −5.2% (− 9.6,-0.8) − 1.9% (− 10.0,6.3) − 5.4% (− 11.9,1.1) 0.732
  Borrowed to pay for health f −11.2% (− 20.6,-1.8) − 12.1% (− 23.2,-1.0) − 12.8% (− 22.4,-3.1) 0.974 − 12.5% (− 22.2,-2.7) −14.5% (− 26.2,-2.9) −16.0% (−26.1,-5.9) 0.876
  1. Exchange rate: 1 JOD = US$1.41. Point Est = point estimate from regression model. Bold italic indicates statistically significant (P < 0.001) findings; bold indicates statistically significant (P < 0.05) findings; italic indicates statistically significant (P < 0.10) findings. P-values are for three group comparison of magnitude of change during the study period
  2. a Adjusted analyses controlled for participant sex, age, education level, and marital status; household size and the presence of more than one UNHCR registration case; prior diagnoses of hypertension, other chronic NCD diagnoses, and years since initial diabetes diagnosis; total household expenditure in the prior month; and receipt of humanitarian assistance, specifically the total value of cash assistance received in the prior month, and current WFP beneficiary status/transfer modality (voucher or Choice); b includes consultation fees, diagnostic testing, and medications obtained at health facility during the most recent visit to health facility, hospital outpatient department, or emergency room (without overnight stay); c among all participants; d at home or in a pharmacy; e Includes expenditures for consultation, diagnostic testing, medication, and associated transportation; f in the past three months