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Table 2 Study and socio-demographic characteristics, mental health disorders scores and WHOQOL-Bref scores of respondents belonging to the clinical group of refugees

From: Health-related quality of life of refugees: a systematic review of studies using the WHOQOL-Bref instrument in general and clinical refugee populations in the community setting

  Carlsson, Mortensen et al. (2006) [56] Huijts et al. (2012) [57] Opaas & Varvin (2015) [58] Teodorescu et al. (2012) [59] Carlsson et al. (2005) [60] Carlsson et al. (2010) [61] Carlsson, Olsen et al. (2006) [62] Kinzie et al. (2012) [63] Opaas et al. (2016) [64]
Study characteristics
 Study location Copenhagen, Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), Denmark Foundation Centrum ‘45, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands Two general mental health outpatient clinics and six psychotherapists in publicly funded individual practices, Oslo (Norway) Outpatient departments of four hospitals from South- Eastern Norway Copenhagen, Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), Denmark Copenhagen, Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), Denmark Copenhagen, Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), Denmark Refugee clinic, Oregon (USA) Specialist mental health outpatient services with public funding, Norway
 Recruiting method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method direct recruitment method
 Year of data collection 1 Jan 2001–15 May 2002 2003–2010 2006–2009 1 Nov 2008- Nov 2009 2001–2002 1 Jan 2001–15 May 2002 1991–1994 Feb 2009- Jan 2010 2006–2009
SAMPLE characteristics
 Size 63 335 54 55 55 45 139 22 51–49
 Gender (n, %)
  Male 63 (100%) 251 (74.9%) 35 (64.8%) 32 (58%) 40 (72.7%) 30 (66.7%) 126 (90.6%) 9 (41%) 33 (64.7%)
  Female 84 (25.1%) 19 (35.2%) 23 (42%) 15 (27.3%) 15 (33.3%) 13 (9.4%) 13 (59%) 18 (35.3%)
 Age mean (SD) 37.8 (8.11) 41.9 39.3 (8.2) 42 (8.6) 39.2 (9.38) 44.7 (8.48) 48 (−) 39.4 (8.0)
 Marital status (n, %)
  Married 50 (79.4%) 35 (64.8%) 32 (58.2%) 43 (78.2%) 37 (82.2%) 87 (62.6%) 34 (66.7%)
  Non married (a) 13 (20.6%) 19 (35.2%) 23 (41.8%) 12 (21.8%) 8 (17.8%) 52 (37.4%) 17 (33.3%)
 Country of origin Diverse Diverse Diverse Diverse Diverse Diverse Diverse Diverse Diverse
 Country of destination Denmark The Netherlands Norway Norway Denmark Denmark Denmark USA Norway
 Duration of stay in years 12.8 (4.73) 10.5 (6.5) 16.7 (7.1) 5.8 (4.98) 4.9 (−) 11.2 (6.3)
 Unemployed 42 (77.8%) 31 (59.6%) 103 (73.9%) after 10 years majority 40 (78.4%)
 HSCL-25
  ANXIETY mean (SD) 2.90 (0.67) 2.89 (0.59) 2.84 2.82 (0.73) 2.26 (0.74) 2.87 (0.59)
  Above cut-off 91.9% 96.2% 94.5% (x) 87.3% 74.1% 96%
  DEPRESSION mean (SD) 2.91 (0.63) 2.94 (0.54) 2.7 (0.64) 2.88 2.81 (0.67) 2.25 (0.70) 100% (Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale) 2.94 (0.52)
  Above cut-off 93.5% 98.1% 93% 92.7% 69.1% 98%
 HTQ - PTSD
  Mean (SD) 3.06 (0.53) 2.91 (0.57) 2.82 (0.47) 2.93 2.91 (0.60) 2.61 (0.68) 2.82 (0.47)
  Above the cut-off 88.9% 85% 78,8% 80% (IESR) 78.2% 56.1% 77.3% (SPRINT) 81.6%
HRQOL mean(SD)
 Physical health 25.57 (20.03) 38 (−) 28.5 (13.8) 32.5 (14.7) 29.55 (−) 30.19 (20.32) 46.28 (21.65) 31 (−) 28.2 (13.8)
 Psychological health 27.52 (19.87) 44 (−) 25.6 (15.9) 34.6 (15.5) 31.04 (−) 32.94 (19.84) 42.70 (22.55) 31 (−) 25.3 (15.7)
 Social relationships 39.66 (25.12) 44 (−) 36.6 (23.4) 43.4 (19.7) 41.59 (−) 42.13 (23.84) 46.55 (24.61) 35.0 (21.7)
 Environment domain 39.87 (19.00) 50 (−) 45.2 (18.2) 43.1 (15.1) 39.03 (−) 37.78 (17.81) 49.44 (19.53) 47 (−) 45.0 (18.5)
  1. WHOQOL-Bref, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment in its short version, scaled 1–100, with domains for physical health, psychological health, environmental and social relationship. Mean scores are Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) to measure anxiety (items 1–10) and depression (items 11–25), cutoff score 1.75; Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) part IV (items 1–16) to measure PTSD, cutoff score 2.5. For HSCL-25 and HTQ mean scores and percentage of individuals scoring above the cutoff are outlined, for the WHOQOL-Bref just the mean score and, when available, the standard error
  2. Unemployment was not reported when for “employed” the authors considered the participant taking part in language courses, job training, education and having an actual job
  3. Education was not reported due to the heterogeneity on how education levels were reported
  4. If the mental status has not been assessed with the HTQ or the HSCL-25, in parenthesis it is outlined the name of the other evaluation tool used for the purpose or “x” in case it was not specified
  5. (a) “non-married” comprises single, divorced and widowed