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Table 5 Association between depression and traumatic experiences

From: Conflict-related violence and mental health among self-settled Democratic Republic of Congo female refugees in Kampala, Uganda – a respondent driven sampling survey

Type of violence Depression Goodness of fit
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)*
p-value F-statistic p-value
Sexual violence
 Rape 2.41 (1.28–4.53) 0.01 2.30 (1.21–4.38) 0.01 1.57 0.12
 Gang rape 1.56 (0.75–3.25) 0.24 1.62 (0.78–3.36) 0.20   
 Pregnancy resulting from rape 1.96 (1.05–3.68) 0.04 1.70 (0.89–3.23) 0.11 0.85 0.57
 Rape before displacement 1.28 (0.71–2.27) 0.41 1.21 (0.67–2.18) 0.52 1.89 0.05
 Rape during flight 0.90 (0.50–1.63) 0.73 1.03 (0.57–1.88) 0.91 1.96 0.04
 Rape after displacement 1.44 (0.74–2.80) 0.28 1.45 (0.74–2.81) 0.27 1.80 0.07
Non-sexual traumatic experiences
 Lack of access to health care 1.71 (0.96–3.07) 0.07 1.71 (0.94–3.11) 0.08 1.58 0.12
 Destruction of property 2.59 (1.27–5.31) 0.01 1.88 (0.90–3.94) 0.09 1.74 0.08
 Forced labor 1.58 (0.95–2.62) 0.08 1.72 (1.01–2.94) 0.05 0.85 0.57
 Forced to betray family or friend, risking their lives 2.30 (0.91–5.82) 0.08 2.43 (0.98–5.99) 0.05 1.96 0.04
 Death of family/friend 1.59 (0.96–2.64) 0.07 1.64 (0.98–2.76) 0.06 1.04 0.41
 Disappearance, kidnapping of spouse /child 2.13 (1.28–3.53) < 0.01 1.99 (1.16–3.40) 0.01 2.25 0.02
  < =10 traumatic experiences Ref.      
 Between 11 and 15 traumatic experiences 1.25 (0.91–1.73) 0.17 1.19 (0.84–1.67) 0.32 1.19 0.30
  > 15 traumatic experiences 1.21 (0.73–1.99) 0.47 1.2- (0.71–2.02) 0.49 1.55 0.13