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Table 4 Association between PTSD score and sexual and non-sexual traumatic experiences

From: Conflict-related violence and mental health among self-settled Democratic Republic of Congo female refugees in Kampala, Uganda – a respondent driven sampling survey

Type of violence PTSD Goodness of fit
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI)a p-value F-statistic p-value
Sexual violence
 Rape 2.24 (1.2–4.18) 0.01 2.43 (1.27–4.65) 0.01 0.70 0.71
 Gang rape 2.04 (0.97–4.28) 0.06 1.92 (0.91–4.06) 0.09 1.95 0.05
 Pregnancy resulting from rape 1.57 (0.77–3.20) 0.22 1.70 (0.85–3.44) 0.13 0.82 0.59
 Rape before displacement 0.79 (0.40–1.57) 0.50 0.90 (0.45–1.81) 0.77 2.14 0.02
 Rape during flight 0.93 (0.47–1.85) 0.84 0.86 (0.67–0.43) 1.73 0.89 0.53
 Rape after displacement 3.06 (1.35–6.92) < 0.001 3.17 (1.37–7.37) < 0.001 0.61 0.79
Non-sexual traumatic experiences
 Lack of shelter 3.02 (1.52–5.99) 0.00 2.86 (1.43–5.74) 0.00 1.01 0.43
 Lack of food/water 2.53 (1.14–5.62) 0.02 2.53 (1.18–5.43) 0.02 0.89 0.53
 Lack of access to health care 289 (1.57–5.30) 0.00 2.84 (1.55–5.23) 0.00 0.49 0.88
 Destruction of property 2.38 (1.13–4.98) 0.02 2.48 (1.18–5.22) 0.02 0.47 0.90
 Sustained beatings 1.91 (1.03–3.53) 0.04 1.87 (1.01–3.49) 0.05 1.53 0.13
 Tortured 1.61 (0.92–2.82) 0.10 1.71 (0.97–3.03) 0.06 0.74 0.67
 War-related injury 2.14 (1.22–3.73) 0.01 2.04 (1.16–3.57) 0.01 0.85 0.57
 Imprisonment 1.81 (0.91–3.61) 0.09 1.73 (0.86–3.45) 0.12 3.77 < 0.001
 Forced labor 2.77 (1.50–5.12) 0.00 2.60 (1.39–4.85) 0.00 0.48 0.89
 Extortion, robbery 3.28 (1.75–6.14) < 0.001 3.08 (1.61–5.89) 0.00 2.99 0.002
 Kidnapped 1.66 (0.96–2.88) 0.07 1.65 (0.94–2.87) 0.08 0.77 0.65
 Find and bury bodies 2.12 (1.07–4.20) 0.03 2.20 (1.10–4.37) 0.03 0.64 0.76
 Forced to betray family or friend, risking their lives 4.70 (1.08–2.46) 0.04 4.46 (1.04–19.06) 0.04 2.12 0.03
 Violent death of spouse or child 1.82 (0.95–3.51) 0.07 1.73 (0.89–3.36) 0.10 0.80 0.61
 Death of family/friend 2.12 (1.15–3.90) 0.02 2.15 (1.18–3.94) 0.01 0.74 0.68
 Disappearance of spouse/child 1.94 (1.12–3.38) 0.02 1.90 (1.09–3.31) 0.02 2.49 0.008
 Disappearance, kidnapping of family/friend 2.44 (1.37–4.33) 0.00 2.72 (1.54–4.82) 0.00 2.75 0.004
 Witnessed physical injury of family/friend in combat 1.92 (1.10–3.34) 0.02 1.99 (1.14–3.47) 0.02 2.03 0.03
 Witnessed beating/torture of other people 1.83 (0.99–3.38) 0.06 1.82 (0.98–3.38) 0.06 1.52 0.14
 Witnessed killing or murder of other people 3.06 (1.73–5.39) < 0.001 3.28 (1.86–5.79) < 0.00 0.48 0.89
  < =10 traumatic experiences Ref.      
 Between 11 and 15 traumatic experiences 1.20 (1.12–1.29) < 0.001 1.21 (1.12–1.29) < 0.001 0.77 0.64
  > 15 traumatic experiences 2.11 (1.39–3.19) < 0.001 2.15 (1.42–3.24) < 0.001 0.81 0.61
  1. aModels were adjusted for age, social support and education level