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Table 1 Summaries of the 45 articles included in the review

From: Violence against healthcare in conflict: a systematic review of the literature and agenda for future research

Type Citation Geographical context Thematic domain Study Design or Approach
Research Briody C. 2018. Review of Attacks on Health Care Facilities in Six Conflicts of the Past Three Decades Global Documentation of Attacks Retrospective open source data analysis
Buckley CJ. 2019. An assessment of attributing public healthcare infrastructure damage in the Donbas five years after Euromaidan: implications for Ukrainian state legitimacy Ukraine Documentation of Attacks Retrospective open source data analysis
Burnham GM. 2009. Doctors leaving 12 tertiary hospitals in Iraq, 2004–2007. Iraq Impact of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Burnham G. 2012. Understanding the impact of conflict on health services in Iraq: information from 401 Iraqi refugee doctors in Jordan: Conflict and health services in Iraq Iraq Impact of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Chi, PC. 2015. Perceptions of the effects of armed conflict on maternal and reproductive health services and outcomes in Burundi and Northern Uganda: a qualitative study Burundi and Northern Uganda Impact of Attacks Qualitative interviews
Chukwuma A. 2019. Armed conflict and maternal health care utilization: Evidence from the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria Nigeria Impact of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Cliff J. 1988. Health as a target: South Africa’s Destabilization of Mozambique Mozambique Impact of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Elamein M. 2017. Attacks against health care in Syria, 2015–16: results from a real-time reporting tool. Syria Documentation of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Fardousi N. 2019 Healthcare under siege: a qualitative study of health-worker responses to targeting and besiegement in Syria Syria Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Foghammar L. 2016 Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments Global Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews and workshop discussions- Secondary analysis
Footer KHA. 2014. On the frontline of eastern Burma’s chronic conflict - Listening to the voices of local health workers. Myanmar Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Footer KHA. 2018. Qualitative accounts from Syrian health professionals regarding violations of the right to health, including use of chemical weapons, in opposition-held Syria Syria Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Haar RJ. 2014. Measurement of attacks and interferences with health care in conflict: validation of an incident reporting tool for attacks on and interferences with health care in eastern Burma Myanmar Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Haar RJ. 2018. Determining the scope of attacks on health in four governorates of Syria in 2016: Results of a field surveillance program Syria Documentation of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Hemat H. 2017. Before the Bombing: High Burden of Traumatic Injuries in Kunduz Trauma Center, Kunduz, Afghanistan Afghanistan Impact of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Lafta RK. 2019. Violence against health-care workers in a conflict affected city Iraq Documentation of Attacks Retrospective cohort survey study
Michlig GJ. 2019. Providing healthcare under ISIS: A qualitative analysis of healthcare worker experiences in Mosul, Iraq between June 2014 and June 2017 Iraq Impact of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Namakula J. 2014. Living through conflict and post-conflict: experiences of health workers in northern Uganda and lessons for people-centered health systems Uganda Impact of Attacks Qualitative interviews study - life history approach
Neuman M. 2014. “No patients, no problems:” Exposure to risk of medical personnel working in MSF projects in Yemen’s governorate of Amran Yemen Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews
RI S. 2019. Attacks on health facilities as an indicator of violence against civilians in Syria: An exploratory analysis of open-source data. Syria Documentation of Attacks Retrospective open source data analysis
Rytter MJH. 2006. Effects of armed conflict on access to emergency health care in Palestinian West Bank: systematic collection of data in emergency departments Palestine Impact of Attacks Retrospective cohort survey study and registry analysis
Sousa c. 2011. Conflict, health care and professional perseverance: A qualitative study in the West Bank Palestine Impact of Attacks Qualitative interviews and Participant observation
Sinha S. 2012. Vulnerabilities of Local Healthcare Providers in Complex Emergencies: Findings from the Manipur Micro-level Insurgency Database 2008–2009 India Documentation of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Trelles M. 2016. Averted health burden over 4 years at Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan, prior to its closure in 2015. Afghanistan Impact of Attacks Retrospective registry analysis
Ud Din I. 2012. “How the Taliban undermined community healthcare in Swat, Pakistan.” Pakistan Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews: Semi-structured approach
Wong CH. 2018. Ambulances under siege in Syria Syria Documentation of Attacks Retrospective open source data analysis
Zimmerman HL. 2019 Attacks on health in conflict: generating attention in the modern information landscape Global Documentation of Attacks Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions and systematic literature review
Human Rights Investigation Crombé X. 2019. War Breaks Out: Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War South Sudan Documentation of Attacks Mixed methods human rights investigation
Garfield RM. 1987. Health-Related Outcomes of War in Nicaragua Nicaragua Impact of Attacks Mixed methods: Retrospective registry analysis and qualitative interviews
Geiger J. 1989. A new medical mission to El Salvador. El Salvador Documentation of Attacks Mixed methods human rights investigation
Gellhorn A. 1983. Medical mission report on El Salvador El Salvador Documentation of Attacks Mixed methods human rights investigation
Eisenberg C. 1983. Health and human rights in El Salvador El Salvador Impact Analysis Mixed methods human rights investigation
Marton R. 2011. Human rights violations during Israel’s attack on the Gaza Strip: 27 December 2008 to 19 January 2009. Palestine Documentation of Attacks Mixed methods human rights investigation
Policy Analysis / Legal Bouchet-Saulnier F. 2018. An Environment Conducive to mistakes: lessons learned in Kunduz Afghanistan Law and Human Rights In depth case study
Foghammar L. 2014. Violence against healthcare in fragile systems Global Documentation Incident review and policy analysis
Footer KHA. 2013. Human Rights Approach to Healthcare in Conflict Global Law and Human Rights Legal or policy analysis
Gates S. 2017. Patterns of Attacks on Medical Personnel and Facilities: SDG 3 meets SDG 16 Global Impact of Attacks Legal or policy analysis
Mclean D. 2019. Medical care in armed conflict: Perpetrator discourse in historical perspective Global Impact of Attacks Historical case study analysis
Terry F. 2013. Violence against health care: insights from Afghanistan, Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Afghanistan, DRC and Somalia Methods description Incident review and policy analysis
Reviews Afzal MH. 2019. A scoping review of the wider and long-term impacts of attacks on health in conflict zones Global Impact of Attacks Scoping review
Boi-Karroum L. 2018. Health Care Workers in the setting of the “Arab Spring”: a scoping review for the Lancet-AUB Commission on Syria MENA Documentation Scoping review
Fouad FM. 2017. Health workers and the weaponisation of health care in Syria: a preliminary inquiry for The Lancet-American University of Beirut Commission on Syria Syria Documentation Mixed methods: Literature review and qualitative stakeholder interviews
Redwood-Campbell LJ. 2014. Health care workers in danger zones: a special report on safety and security in a changing environment Global Documentation Qualitative review
Rubenstein LS. 2010. Responsibility for protection of medical workers and facilities in armed conflict Global Documentation Qualitative review