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Table 2 Summary of key characteristics of peer-reviewed articles, by thematic focus

From: Policies on return and reintegration of displaced healthcare workers towards rebuilding conflict-affected health systems: a review for The Lancet-AUB Commission on Syria

First author, publication year Article type/study design Description Study setting (study period) Type of HCW
Multiple themes
 Bertone, 2018 [39] Qualitative Reports policies and policy-making processes at central level related to healthcare workforce recruitment and presents a political economy analysis about how and why both official and informal practices developed, as well as the drivers, challenges and blockages at different stages. Timor-Leste (1998–2018) Multiple (with a focus on nurses)
 Bristol, 2005 [40] Commentary Identifies challenges faced by expatriate doctors returning to Afghanistan to provide essential healthcare Afghanistan (2001–2005) Multiple (i.e. Expatriate doctors based in the U.S., midwives, community HCWs)
 Chikanda, 2006 [41] Qualitative Assesses the magnitude of the migration of skilled health personnel, analysed the effects on health care delivery, and recommended ways of retaining skilled health personnel. Zimbabwe (2002) Multiple (Individual HCWs, migrant health staff, and returnee health staff)
 Crutcher, 2008 [42] Case Study Describes the Sudanese Physician Reintegration Programme. South Sudan (2008) Physicians (Sudanese physicians)
Repatriation of externally displaced HCWs
 Akl, 2008 [43] Observational Examines whether the repatriation of Lebanese physicians educated abroad has contributed to the international emigration of recent Lebanese medical graduates. Lebanon (1977–2006) Physicians
 Finlay, 2011 [44] Review Examines the motivations and factors influencing the planned return to Sudan of the 15 participants in the Sudanese Physician Reintegration Programme, using a multiple life history approach South Sudan (2006) Physicians (Qualified Sudanese physicians trained in Cuba)
Reintegration of returned HCWs
 Preston, 1994 [45] Case Study Analyses the situation of people seriously affected by the war of independence and the effectiveness of policy initiatives or their own efforts to facilitate their integration into society. Namibia (1993) Multiple
Rehabilitation and reconstruction of the health system
 Morikawa, 2003 [46] Case Study Describes a training program by both expatriate and returned staff that supported the reintegration of returned staff Kosovo (1999) Multiple (GPs and nurses)
 Al Hilfi, 2013 [47] Review Describes the health status of Iraqis, the function of Iraq’s health system, the rapid changes occurring in the health sector, and the need for improved policies to guide these processes Iraq (2003–2011) Multiple