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Table 1 Summary of major reforms and initiatives related to governance and accountability of the humanitarian system

From: Healthcare governance during humanitarian responses: a survey of current practice among international humanitarian actors

Reform or Initiative Lead organisation(s) Description Year
IASC (Inter-agency Standing Committee) OCHA (Office for Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs) Humanitarian co-ordination forum for the UN system to ensure coherence of preparedness and response efforts, formulate policy and agree on priorities for strengthened humanitarian action [8]. 1992
Code of Conduct IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) Voluntary code to maintain high standards of independence, effectiveness and impact to which other NGOs are signatories [9]. 1994
People In Aid People In Aid International network of relief and development agencies committed to improving human resources management through the People in Aid Code of Best Practice [10]. Merged with HAP-I to form CHS Alliance in 2014 [3]. 1995
ALNAP (Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance) ALNAP Global network of NGOs, UN agencies, members of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, donors, academics, networks and consultants dedicated to learning how to improve response to humanitarian crises [11]. 1997
Humanitarian charter & minimum standards in humanitarian response Sphere Association Humanitarian charter is a voluntary commitment of shared principles, rights and obligations for ensuring the welfare of crisis-affected populations. Minimum standards for health, WASH, nutrition, food security and shelter with suggestions for indicators and targets [12]. 1997
Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International (HAP-I) HAP-I Multi-agency initiative and first body for self-regulation in humanitarian sector. Created the HAP Standard in Accountability and Quality Management. Merged with People in Aid to form CHS Alliance in 2014 [3]. 2003
Cluster system WHO Co-ordination of humanitarian response at the global and crisis response level to ensure predictable leadership and accountability in all main sectors, strengthen system-wide preparedness and technical capacity in humanitarian emergencies [13]. 2005
Transformative agenda IASC Set of concrete actions aimed at improving the timeliness and effectiveness of the collective response through stronger leadership, more effective co-ordination structures and improved accountability for performance and to affected people [14]. 2011
Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability CHS Alliance (formerly HAP-I and People in Aid), Sphere, Groupe URD, HQAI Voluntary standard made up of nine commitments with key actions and organisational responsibilities to improve the quality and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance [15]. 2014
Humanitarian Quality Assurance Initiative HQAI NGO providing services for benchmarking, verification and certification against the Core Humanitarian Standard [16]. 2015
Grand Bargain IASC Agreement between donor governments, UN agencies and aid organisations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international humanitarian aid particularly focussed on transparency, better co-ordination and reform to humanitarian financing [17]. 2016