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Table 4 Logistic regression model of time 1 predictors of recent intimate partner violence at time 2 (n = 319)

From: Intimate partner violence against women on the Colombia Ecuador border: a mixed-methods analysis of the liminal migrant experience

  Physical and/or Sexual IPV Emotional IPV
OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Previous Trauma
 Forced Migration (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 5.06 2.03 12.59 0.00 1.57 0.86 2.87 0.15
 Migration-related adversity (Experienced by anyone in household) (0 = No, 1 = Yes)      0.63 0.24 1.65 0.35
 Verbally threatened 4.37 1.65 11.60 0.00     
 Verbally insulted but not threatened 0.47 0.17 1.28 0.14 1.28 0.65 2.51 0.48
 Threatened with a knife, gun or other type of weapon 1.15 0.25 5.18 0.86 0.76 0.25 2.32 0.63
 Attacked with a knife, gun or other type of weapon 1.46 0.34 6.20 0.61 1.83 0.72 4.69 0.21
 Wounded or physically attached in some other way 4.62 1.25 17.06 0.02 0.51 0.14 1.78 0.29
 Kidnapped 1.84 0.12 28.10 0.66 0.25 0.04 1.76 0.17
 Forced to perform manual or some other kind of labour 0.70 0.06 7.93 0.78 2.29 0.46 11.37 0.31
 Extorted for money or other goods 1.62 0.16 16.18 0.68 1.78 0.35 8.95 0.49
 Stolen or damaged property 1.52 0.48 4.80 0.48 2.23 0.89 5.58 0.09
 Forced to join a military group 0.06 0.01 0.57 0.01 0.73 0.14 3.70 0.70
 Sexual aggression (rape, verbal or physical assault) 0.34 0.04 3.24 0.35 0.51 0.13 1.90 0.31
 Emotional IPV at Time 1 10.64 5.02 22.58 0.00
 Physical/and or Sexual IPV at Time 1 14.48 5.81 36.10 0.00
Social Isolation
 Family in area when moved here (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 0.66 0.26 1.64 0.37 0.50 0.26 0.96 0.04
 Allowed to leave city without permission (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 0.87 0.27 2.82 0.82 1.01 0.35 2.91 0.99
 Husband limits contact with family (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 4.90 1.96 12.24 0.00
 I can count on my neighbour to watch after my house (0 = Disagree; 1 = Agree) 0.71 0.22 2.24 0.56 1.40 0.75 2.62 0.29
 I feel part of the community (0 = Disagree; 1 = Agree) 0.48 0.15 1.56 0.22 0.87 0.29 2.60 0.80
 I feel alone (0 = Disagree; 1 = Agree) 0.63 0.28 1.40 0.26 1.22 0.65 2.29 0.54
 Perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity in last six months (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 0.79 0.13 4.75 0.80 1.87 0.52 6.74 0.34
 Perceived discrimination because of nationality in last six months (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 1.10 0.44 2.79 0.84 1.16 0.68 1.99 0.59
Economic Instability
 Rent (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 4.42 1.95 10.05 0.00 0.52 0.24 1.16 0.11
 Food Consumption Score (1) 0.99 0.97 1.02 0.45 1.01 0.99 1.03 0.51
 Household wealth (2) 0.92 0.55 1.53 0.74 0.91 0.63 1.31 0.61
 Value of female assets (USD) 0.998 0.995 1.000 0.02 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.68
 Asset ratio between male and female partner 2.20 0.61 7.97 0.23 1.75 0.68 4.54 0.25
 Earning difference between partners (0 = Female earns less; 1 = Female earns same or more) 0.63 0.17 2.37 0.49 1.05 0.41 2.70 0.92
 Female leaving labour force (4) 0.57 0.20 1.68 0.31 1.07 0.50 2.29 0.86
 Female entering labour force (4) 3.09 0.94 10.13 0.06 1.46 0.73 2.90 0.29
 Intercept 0.03 0.00 2.51 0.12 0.98 0.95 1.01 0.21
  1. Model Notes: Adjusted for female age and education, province, treatment assignment, and baseline IPV; standard errors robust to non-normality and non-independence of observations; missings not imputed
  2. 1. Calculated by summing the number of days eight different food groups were consumed by a household, multiplying these by weighted frequencies, and summing across food groups
  3. 2. Constructed as recommended by the Demographic Health Survey using principal component analysis of source of drinking water, type of toilet, sharing of toilet facilities, material of principal floor, walls, roof, cooking fuel, and household services and possessions, such as electricity, TV, radio, types of vehicles, agricultural land size owned, and type and number of animals owned
  4. 3. Assets include: land, large and small animals, agricultural tools, household appliances, computers, cell phones, bikes and vehicles
  5. 4. Participants were categorised as participating in the labour force if they responded yes to any of the following questions: In the last six months have you 1) farmed your own land; 2) worked in an agricultural position for pay; 3) worked in a non-agricultural position for pay; or 4) worked on non-agricultural activities, on their own, like a small business