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Table 1 Vulnerability risk factors among Syrian refugees in Lebanon and their impact on the basic reproductive number (R0)

From: Vulnerability of Syrian refugees in Lebanon to COVID-19: quantitative insights

Risk factor Consequence Effect on R0 parameters
Crowded physical environment • Increased contacts between households • Increase in the contact rate (c)
• Increased contacts within households • Increase in the contact rate (c)
• Short physical distance between members of a household • Increase in the probability of transmission (p)
• Inability to isolate or quarantine • Increase in the duration of infectiousness (D)
Inadequate access to clean water • Precludes hand/face washing and surfaces cleaning • Increase in the probability of transmission (p)
Inadequate access to protective measures such as masks • Increased spread of respiratory droplets • Increase in the probability of transmission (p)
Inadequate access to health care • Precludes diagnosis and isolation • Increase in the duration of infectiousness (D)
Inadequate community awareness • Delay to isolate or quarantine • Increase in the duration of infectiousness (D)