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Table 8 Comparison of Factor Structures from Prior Scales

From: Assessing exposure to war-related traumatic events in older Vietnamese war survivors

VHAS Items NVVRS CES DDRI MHAT-CES
Wounded in warzone    Combat Exper. Direct Engagement
Know people who were injured X    
Saw dead Vietnamese soldiers    Postbattle Exper.  
Saw dead foreign soldiers    Postbattle Exper. Near Injury/Death
Saw dead civilians    Postbattle Exper.  
Went on combat patrols   X Combat Exper.  
Was attacked/ambushed    Combat Exper. Combat Envir.
Came under artillery fire   X Combat Exper. Combat Envir.
Shot at the enemy   X Combat Exper. Combat Envir.
Caused death of an enemy    Combat Exper. Combat Envir.
Was nearly shot   X   Direct Engagement
Friend was shot near R   X Combat Exper. Direct Engagement
Exposed to toxic chemicals    Chemical Exposure  
Moved due to bombings     
Moved due to evacuation     
Shortage of clean water X    
Food shortage    Deployment Env.  
Inability to sleep    Deployment Env.  
Fear of death/severe injury    Deploy. Concerns  
  1. a Items from the NVVRS were used in research, but the psychometric properties of the NVVRS (and its subsections) have never been tested, and its items have not been used in scale form
  2. b CES items are administered as a single, unidimensional scale. It has been shown to have good predictive ability, but the other psychometric properties have not been tested
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