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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics and episodes of different types of violence in Libya by sex

From: Episodes of violence suffered by migrants transiting through Libya: a cross-sectional study in “Médecins du Monde’s” reception and healthcare centre in Seine-Saint-Denis, France

 Total (N = 72)Women (N = 17)Men (N = 55)p value
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
 Age in years (mean, SD)31,9(7,4)30,2(7,8)32,5(7,3)0,27
Educational level (%, n/N)
 Primary76,4(55/72)100,0(17/17)69,1(38/55)0,03*
 Secondary18,1(13/72)0,0(0/17)23,6(13/55)
 Tertiary5,5(4/72)0,0(0/17)7,3(4/55)
Country of Origin (%, n/N)
 Ivory Coast66,6(48/72)82,4(14/17)61,8(34/55)0,51
 Mali23,6(17/72)17,6(3/17)25,5(14/55)
 Eritrea1,4(1/72)0,0(0/17)1,8(1/55)
 Republic of Cameroon5,6(4/72)0,0(0/17)7,3(4/55)
Reasons for leaving country of origin (%, n/N)
 Security59,7(43/72)82,3(14/17)52,7(29/55)0,12
 Political15,3(11/72)5,9(1/17)18,2(10/55)
 Economic22,2(6/72)11,8(4/17)25,5(14/55)
 Studies2,8(2/72)0,0(0/17)3,6(2/55)
Type of travel (%, n/N)
 Alone69,4(50/72)41,2(7/17)78,2(43/55)0,01*
 With family19,4(14/72)35,3(6/17)14,5(4/55)
 Other11,1(8/72)23,5(4/17)7,3(8/55)
Pregnancy during travel (%, n/N)__29,4(5/17)___
Boarding by threat (%, n/N)58,1(42/72)47,1(8/17)61,8(34/55)0,68
Length of stay in Libya in days (median, IQR)180(120–365)120,0(60–180)200(120–365)0,02*
Healthcare access in Libya (%, n/N)2,8(2/72)0(0/17)3,6(2/55)0,05*
Need of psychological support after the survey (%, n/N)63,9(46/72)70,8(12/17)61,8(34/55)0,35
EPISODES OF DIRECT VIOLENCE (%, CI 95%)
 Global Violence194,4(89,0-99,9)88,2(71,3–100)96,3(91,3–100)0,21
Physical violence91,1(84,3-98,1)80,0(57,1–100)94,3(87,9–100)0,05*
 With firearms76,1(65,6-86,6)53,5(24,7-81,9)82,7(72,1-93,3)0,02*
 Without firearms89,5(82,1-97,1)73,3(48,0-98,7)94,3(87,9–100)0,02*
Violence with deprivation89,5(82,1-97,1)86,7(67,7–100)91,7(85,6–100)0,10
 Detention without food88,2(79,3-98,1)86,7(67,7–100)88,7(78,3-99,0)0,85
 Detention with racket58,8(46,1-71,5)46,7(18,1-75,2)62,3(47,7-76,8)0,31
 Detention with ransom58,8(46,1-71,5)60,1(31,9-88,0)58,5(43,8-73,2)0,92
 Family separation37,6(24,2-49,2)46,7(18,1-75,2)34,0(19,7-48,2)0,40
Sexual violence26,5(15,7-37,2)53,3(24,7-81,9)18,9(7,9-24,8)0,01*
Other types of violence
 Forced labour33,3(19,9-47,5)22,2(9,8-35,6)49,1(17,5-82,1)0,03*
 Unsafe abortion__17,6(5,3-29,9)___
EPISODES OF WITNESSED VIOLENCE (%, CI 95%)
Global Violence1100,0(100–100)00,0(100–100)100,0(100–100)_
Physical violence93,1(85,9–100)88,2(71,1–100)94,3(87,9–100)0,46
 With firearms87,5(78,7-93,2)82,4(62,1–100)89,1(79,1-99,0)0,52
 Without firearms93,1(85,9–100)88,2(71,1–100)92,7(83,9–100)0,87
Violence with deprivation94,4(89,0-99,9)88,2(71,3–100)96,3(91,3–100)0,21
 Detention without food87,5(78,3-96,5)88,2(71,2–100)87,3(76,8-97,7)0,93
 Detention with racket76,4(65,6-87,1)76,4(54,0-99,0)76,4(63,7-89,1)0,99
 Detention with ransom79,2(68,8-89,6)70,6(46,4-94,7)81,8(70,1-93,6)0,37
 Family separation61,1(48,9-73,3)52,9(26,5-79,4)63,6(49,5-77,6)0,46
Sexual violence79,2(68,8-89,6)82,4(62,1–100)78,2(65,8-90,6)0,74
Other types of violence
 Forced labour88,2(79,3-98,1)86,7(67,7–100)88,7(78,3-99,0)0,85
  1. 1 The term Global violence refers to physical and/or deprivation and/or sexual violence *p values correspond to two sample T-tests for continuous variables and to Chi-2 tests for categorical values. Values with * are statistically significant (p < 0.05). SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range