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Table 6 World-wide Youth studies assessing the relationship between exposure to violence and smoking behavior

From: Country and gender differences in the association between violence and cigarette smoking among youth

City/country school-based studies
City or Country, Reference Setting/Year Sample Size Violence Exposure Association with Smoking
Beijing, China
(Hazemba et al., 2008 [21])
Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS)/2003 2348 middle school students Bullying OR = 1.09 students who smoked more likely to have been bullied
(Kubwalo et al., 2013 [22])
Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey/2009 2264, 13–15 yrs.  old Bullying Students who smoked more likely of being bullied OR = 3.97
(Hertz et al., 2015 [23])
Youth Risk Behavior Survey/School-based/2011 13,846, grades 9–12 yrs. old Bullying Being bullied significantly associated with cigarette use among girls and boys Adjusted ORs 1.7 to 2.3
(Page 2009 [24])
Global School-Based Health Survey 8131, 13 to 15  yrs. old Being involved in a fight in the prior 12 months Cigarette smoking positively associated with having been involved in a fight
(Pabayo, Molnar and Kawachi, 2013 [25])
School-based High school students witnessed a violent death Witnessing a violent death associated with smoking among boys; girls not significant
Cross-country school-based study
 6 Western Pacific Countries—all Pacific Islanders
(Yang et al., 2017 [26])
School-based 6377 youth aged 13–15 yrs. old Physical fights Significant association of fights with smoking
Cross country community- based study
 Five urban sites: Baltimore, New Delhi, Johannesburg, Ibadan, and Shanghai
(Mmari et al., 2014 [27])
Community-based/2011-2013 2320 youth, 15–19 yrs. old Witnessing community violence Associated with ever smoking in 2 sites