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Table 5 Exposure to different forms of violence and odds of smoking among adolescents 14–17 years old, stratified by Country and Gender, Jujuy, Argentina in 2006 and West Bank (oPt) in 2008

From: Country and gender differences in the association between violence and cigarette smoking among youth

  Argentina oPt
  Girls Boys Girls Boys
  ORa
(95% CI)
p-value ORa
(95% CI)
p-value ORa
(95% CI)
p-value ORa
(95%CI)
p-value
Verbal violence
 From family members 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 0.030 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.026 2.2 (1.1–4.4) 0.021 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 0.310
Physical violence
 From family 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 0.226 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.495 2.0 (1.1–3.6) 0.030 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 0.474
 From non-family 2.5 (1.7–3.8) < 0.001 2.2 (1.6–3.0) < 0.001 1.0 -b 1.0 (0.4–2.6) 0.999
 From family or non-family 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 0.011 2.0 (1.5–2.7) < 0.001 1.0 -b 0.6 (0.1–3.4) 0.599
Verbal or physical violence
 From family 1.2 (1.0–1.6) 0.098 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 0.061 2.5 (1.2–5.4) 0.018 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 0.232
 From family or non-family 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 0.003 1.7 (1.3–2.4) 0.002 1.0 -b 0.4 (0.1–2.8) 0.386
  1. aOdds ratios adjusted for all risk factors bViolence exposure occurred in 100% of cases