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Table 4 Exposure to different forms of violence and odds of smoking among adolescents 14–17 years old, stratified by Country, Jujuy, Argentina in 2006 and West Bank oPt in 2008

From: Country and gender differences in the association between violence and cigarette smoking among youth

  Argentina oPt
  ORa
(95% CI)
p-value ORa
(95% CI)
p-value
Verbal violence
 From family 1.4 (1.1.-1.6) 0.002 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 0.047
Physical violence
 From family 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.169 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 0.125
 From non-family 2.3 (1.8–2.9) < 0.001 1.2 (0.5–2.8) 0.725
 From family or non-family 1.8 (1.4–2.2) < 0.001 0.8 (0.2–3.5) 0.773
Verbal or physical violence
 From family 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.009 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 0.034
 From family or non-family 1.6 (1.3–1.8) < 0.001 0.6 (0.1–2.9) 0.543
  1. aOdds ratios adjusted for gender, age, provider highest education level, father or mother smoke, sibling smokes, teachers smoke in class, self-perceived health status, felt anxious, felt sad