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Table 1 Process evaluation framework: domains, dimensions, study population, data sources and data types

From: Distribution of hygiene kits during a cholera outbreak in Kasaï-Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo: a process evaluation

Process evaluation domains and dimensions Research question Core information sought Study population Data source Data type
Domain 1: Implementation
1. Intervention description a. What was the design of the intervention? Overall design of the intervention including site, population, health care facility and structure, rationale and timeline MSF staff implementing the intervention (e.g. field coordinators, medical, logistics, WASH, supply and health promotion coordinators) Semi-structured interviews (SSIs) and intervention reports and surveillance data from the local & national government including georeferenced maps Qualitative
b. What are the components of the intervention? Content of the intervention including the intervention components and selection   MSF cholera guidelines, supply and kit catalogues, intervention reports and activity records (e.g. supply chain freight manifests, purchase orders, distribution lists, attendance registers) Qualitative
2. Delivery format Where and when was the intervention delivered? Description of targeted area, population size, health care facility structure and environment, and timeline of the intervention MSF staff, local government and national agencies (e.g. WASH and health clusters, PNECHOL-MD) SSIs, intervention timeline and intervention reports Qualitative/ Quantitative
MSF staff, local government and other organisations (e.g. Save The Children, UNICEF, Solidarities International, Catholic Relief Services, Action Aid) SSIs, intervention timeline and intervention reports Qualitative/ Quantitative
What other interventions (WASH and non-WASH) were provided by MSF? Documentation of other interventions locally and nationally including the number of “competing” programmes, or components reaching the target population MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs and intervention reports Qualitative/ Quantitative
What other agencies were involved in implementation? Documentation of the other agencies and government structures operating in the targeted area, including their roles and perceptions on the intervention MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs and intervention reports Qualitative
How was the intervention demonstrated and explained to users? Documentation of the delivery format, timing and interaction with intervention recipients MSF staff (e.g. CHWs) Structured observations Qualitative/ Quantitative
MSF staff & intervention recipients SSIs and intervention reports Qualitative
What resources were used to implement the intervention? Human, material and financial resources utilised by the intervention MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs, intervention reports, activity records and budgets Qualitative/ Quantitative
3. Dose delivered and implementation fidelity How many interventions were delivered? Number of interventions delivered and number of planned interventions   SSIs, intervention reports and activity records and surveillance data Quantitative
Was the intervention delivered as planned? Documentation of the content, quality, successes and challenges of the intervention delivered MSF staff & intervention recipients SSIs and intervention reports Qualitative/ Quantitative
Domain 2: Participant response
4. Dose received How many interventions were received? Number of interventions received in the households of recipients Intervention recipients SSIs Qualitative
5. Intervention reach How many people interacted with the intervention? And their uptake of the intervention? Number of people in the household who interacted with the intervention and use Intervention recipients SSIs Qualitative
6. Acceptability What were the levels of participation and satisfaction? Comprehension of emotional responses to the intervention, acceptability of the intervention and component preferences Intervention recipients SSIs Qualitative
7. Barriers What were the barriers to using the intervention? Obstruction (physical and/or emotional barriers) to the intervention and concerns with the intervention Intervention recipients, MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs Qualitative
8. Maintenance How and why was the intervention sustained over time (or not)? Retention of key messages, target behaviours and reflections of the intervention Intervention recipients SSIs Qualitative/ Quantitative
9. Unintended consequences What effects were not captured or were there unexpected outcomes, both related to the intervention and unrelated care? Reasons for any deviation from the intended activities, interaction with and use of the intervention Intervention recipients, MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs Qualitative
Domain 3: Context
Context What was the context? Characteristics of the delivery context (geographical, political, legal, ethical, epidemiological, sociocultural, socioeconomic) MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs, intervention reports, activity records and budgets Qualitative
What external factors affected the implementation and the outcome? Organisational context: culture, agenda, priorities, leadership styles and perceptions of leaders, perceptions on research and evaluation, and other contextual factors MSF staff, local government and other organisations SSIs and intervention reports Qualitative
  1. CHWs Community Health Workers, MSF Médecins Sans Frontières, PNECHOL-MD Programme National d’Elimination du Choléra et de Lutte contre les autres Maladies Diarrhéiques, SSIs Semi-structured interviews, WASH Water, sanitation and hygiene