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Table 1 Summary table of the selected articles including study site, country of origin, sample size, type of migrant, study design, assessment tool and findings

From: Systematic review of factors associated with quality of life of asylum seekers and refugees in high-income countries

Study Country in which the Study was Conducted Migrant Country of Origin N Type of Migrant Study Design Recruitment Site Self-Rating Scale for QoL Other validated Assessment Measures Summary of Significant Associations with QoL Non-significant Associations with QoL (p > .005)
Carlsson et al. 2010a [17] Denmark Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan 45 Refugees Longitudinal Rehabilitation and research center for torture victims WHOQOL-Bref (WHOQOL Group, 1998) HTQ, HSCL-25, HDS WHOQOL Environment Time (Baseline vs. 9-month follow-up)(p = .029)
WHOQOL Environment Time (Baseline vs. 23-month follow-up)(p = .017)
• No significant difference between baseline and 9 month, or 23 month follow-up for WHOQOL Physical, mental or social.
Carlsson, Mortensen & Kastrupa [18] Denmark Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan 55 Refugees Longitudinal Rehabilitation and research center for torture victims WHOQOL-Bref (WHOQOL Group, 1998) [4] HTQ, HSCL-25, HDS Changes in mental health
Evaluation of improved mental health (vs. those evaluating no improvement) during treatment had higher health-related quality of life in the ‘mental’ domain (t = 2.46, p = .017)
Those with the lowest baseline QoL showed the largest increase in QoL.
• No significant changes over time for the WHOQOL domains.
• The Spearman rank correlations between years from exposure to torture and baseline scores were nonsignificant for all QoL domains
• The Spearman rank correlation between total number of treatment sessions and difference scores was low and nonsignificant for all QoL domains
• Expressing expectations to improve during treatment was not associated with changes in QoL domains
Carlsson, Mortensen & Kastrup [19] Denmark Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, other (not specified) 63 Refugees Cross-Sectional Rehabilitation and research center for torture victims WHOQOL-Bref [4] HSCL-25, HDS, HTQ Overall variance accounted for by the regression model was not reported
WHOQOL Physical
Occupation (β = 0.23, p < .05)
Social relations (β = 0.33, p < .01)
Pain (β = − 0.42, p < .01)
WHOQOL psychological
Social relations (β = 0.31, p < .05)
WHOQOL Social
Social relations (β = 0.39, p < .01)
WHOQOL Environment
Social relations (β = 0.40, p < .01)
▫ Pain (β = − 0.35, p < .05)
o Number of years since last exposure to torture was not associated with QoL
o Age and proficiency in Danish were not significant associated with QoL
Regression (Model 2)
• Education, torture, or having been on the run were not significantly associated with any of the QoL domains
• Occupation was not significantly associated with mental, social or environmental QoL
• Pain was not significantly associated with mental or social QoL
Carlsson, Olsen, Mortensen & Kastrup* [20] Denmark Iran, Iraq, Lebanon 139 Refugees Longitudinal Rehabilitation and research center for torture victims WHOQOL-Bref [4] HTQ, HSCL-25 Overall variance accounted for by the regression model was not reported
WHOQOL Physical
Pain upper extremities (β = 0.20, p < .05)
Employment (β = 0.49, p < .001)
▫ Headache (β = − 0.31, p < .001)
WHOQOL Mental
Social relations (β = 0.21, p < .05)
Employment (β = 0.40, p < .001)
WHOQOL Social
Social relations (β = 0.40, p < .001)
Employment (β = 0.27, p < .01)
▫ Headache (β = − 0.20, p < .05)
WHOQOL Environment
Social relations (β = 0.24, p < .01)
Employment (β = 0.36, p < .001)
▫ Headache (β = − 0.19, p < .05)
Regression (Model 2)
• Education, marked mood shifts, and years in Denmark were not associated with any of the QoL domains
• Pain in upper extremities was not associated with mental, social or environmental QoL
• Headache was not associated with mental QoL
• Social relations was not associated with physical QoL
Correa-Velez, Green, Murray [21] Australia Africa, South Asia, Middle East, West Asia, South East Asia 104 Refugees Cross-Sectional Agency involved in refugee resettlement WHOQOL-Bref HTQ, PMLD, SASCAT Regressing WHOQOL Physical domain on predictor variables was significant (r2 = .30, p < .001)
Region of birth (Africa) (β = 0.32, 95% CI = [5.44, 19.83], p = .001)
Education (2y/3y) (β = 0.32, 95% CI = [3.80, 16.94], p = .002)
Community can be trusted (β = 0.20, 95% CI = [.79, 12.49], p = .027)
Regressing WHOQOL Psychological domain on predictor variables was significant (r2 = .19, p = .008)
Community can be trusted (β = 0.20, 95% CI = [.33, 13.02], p = .039)
▫ Number of people no support (β = − 0.24, 95% CI = [− 5.80, −.57], p = .018)
• Age, Children (1 or more), English skills and trauma types were non-significant predictors of the physical domain
• Age, region of birth (Africa), children (1 or more), education (2y/3y), English skills, and trauma types were non-significant predictors of the psychological domain
• The hierarchical logistic regression predicting overall QOL found no significant associations
Correa-Velez, Barnett, Gifford & Sackey* [22] Australia Sudan, Burma (Myanmar), Iraq, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Afghanistan, Congo-Brazzaville, Iran, Tanzania, Uganda 233 Refugees Cross-Sectional Community WHOQOL-Bref [4] HSCL-25, HTQ, Items to assess use of Health Services & Medication WHOQOL Environment
▫ Living in regional areas (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = [0.2, 0.9], p < .05)
• Area of settlement did not predict significant poorer QoL in the physical, mental or social domain
Georgiadeu et al. [23] Germany Syrian 119 Refugees Cross-sectional Registry WHOQOL-Bref ETI, PHQ-9, GAD-7, SOC-13, F-SozU, WHOQOL Psychological
Married with partner in Germany scored higher than married without partner in Germany, t(117) = 2.91, p = .004
WHOQOL Social
Married with partner in Germany scored higher than married without partner in Germany, U = -3.02, p = .002
WHOQOL Environment Married with partner in Germany scored higher than married without partner in Germany, t(117) = 2.27, p = .025.
WHOQOL Overall
Married with partner in Germany scored higher than married without partner in Germany, t(117) = 2.78, p = .006.
Regressing overall QoL on predictor variables was significant (r2 = .66)
Sense of coherence (β = 0.15, 95% CI = [− 0.00, 0.33], p = .049)
Social support (β = 0.25, 95% CI = [0.15, 0.46], p < .001)
▫ Depression (β = − 0.44, 95% CI = [− 1.52, − 0.61], p < .001)
Regressing WHOQOL psychological domain on predictor variables was significant (r2 = .61)
Gender (β = 0.15, 95% CI = [0.32, 11.04], p = .038)
Residence of partner (β = 0.17, 95% CI = [1.39, 13.95], p = .017)
Sense of coherence (β = 0.22, 95% CI = [0.07, 0.47], p = .008)
Social support (β = 0.17, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.41], p = .016)
▫ Depression (β = − 0.40, 95% CI = [− 1.66, − 0.56], p < .001)
• No significant differences in WHOQOL Physical (married with partner vs. married without partner)
• Sex, age, residence of partner, residence of minor child, anxiety, number of traumatic events, trauma inventory, and satisfaction with marriage were non-significant predictors of overall QoL
• Age accommodation, residence of minor child, anxiety, number of traumatic events, trauma inventory, and satisfaction with marriage were non-significant predictors of WHOQOL psychological.
Ghazinour, Richter & Eisemann [24] Sweden Iran 100 Refugees Cross-Sectional Half were recruited as outpatients at a psychiatric clinic and half were recruited as interested volunteers. WHOQOL-100 [18] CRI, ISSI, BDI, SCL-90 Gender: Males reported lower overall QoL (t = − 2.99, p = .004) than females
Males reported lower levels of Independence (Psychological domain), (t = − 2.00, p = .049) than females
Males reported lower social QoL than females (t = − 2.40, p = .018)
Males reported lower environmental QoL (t = − 2.06, p = .043)
Males reported lower spirituality (psychological domain) (t = − 2.82, p = .006)
Having a BDI score below the mean and having been in the army showed the highest significant overall QoL F(19,70) = 60.06, p < .001
Sense of coherence, coping resources, and social support had various significant relationships with QoL (see paper for details)
• Gender: no significant differences found for physical health or psychological health
• No significant correlation was found between spirituality (psychological domain) and adequacy of attachment (social support scale)
Hengst, Smid & Labanb [25] Netherlands Iraq 294 Asylum Seekers Cross-Sectional Central Organ of Asylum (COA) WHOQOL-Bref [4] HTQ, PMLP, WHO-CIDI, BDQ Mediation model of psychopathology, disability and quality of life χ2(12) = 10.52, p = .570
▫ Unnatural loss of a child (β = −.05, 95% CI = [−.44, −.03], p < .05)
▫ N° of lost family members (β = −.04, 95% CI = [−.01, .00], p < .05)
▫ Other traumatic events (β = −.13, 95% CI = [−.06, −.02], p < .05)
▫ Long asylum procedure (β = −.18, 95% CI = [−.66, −.13], p < .05)
▫ Psychopathology (β = −.33, 95% CI = [−.42, −.20], p < .05)
• Age, female sex, education level and postmigration stressors were not significantly associated with QoL
• Unnatural loss of family, unnatural loss of friends, witnessing the loss of family or friend, number of lost children, and number of lost friends were not significantly associated with QoL
Huijts, Kleijn, van Emmerik, Noordhof, and Smith [26] Netherlands 38 different countries in the Middle East, former Yugoslavia, or other regions of which 50 were Asian, 35 African, and 4 South American. 335 Refugees Cross-Sectional Foundation Centrum ‘45, a specialist institute for diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress. WHOQOL-Bref [4] COPE-EASY-32, HTQ Regressing overall QoL on predictor variables was significant (r2 = .42, p < .05)
Social Support Seeking (β = 0.12, 95% CI = [.03, .21], p < .05)
Emotion-Focused Coping (β = 0.13, 95% CI = [.04, .23], p < .01)
Self-reported PTSD (β = − 0.61, 95% CI = [−.68, −.54], p < .001)
Post-hoc analyses revealed that emotion-focused coping and social support seeking differed per country of origin, and per gender.
Subgroup analysis of regression
o Males: emotion-focused coping, was not significantly related to QoL
o Females: social support seeking was not significantly related to QoL
Multigroup analyses
• No significant differences found regarding length of stay in the Netherlands.
Jesuthasan et al.* [27] Germany Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, Somalia, Iran, Eritrea 663 Refugees
+ European Reference Sample
Cross-Sectional Shared reception facilities EUROHIS-QOL questionnaire [24] HTQ, HSCL-25, ICSEY Female refugees rated their overall QoL significantly lower than the EU reference simple, t(5508) = 16.9, p < .0001
Residence and mission in a war zone, and being sick without any access to health care significantly affected all four domains of QoL
Near death experience affected physical and psychological domains.
Aggression from family members affected the physical and social domain
Forced isolation affected the physical, psychological, and environmental domains.
Within Group (Refugees) Predictors: Regressing overall reduced QoL on socio-demographic and traumatic predictor variables (Overall variance accounted for by the regression model was not reported)
A) Reduced QoL
Age > 30 (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.2–2.3], p = .004)
Near-Death Experience (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.4], p = .001)
Mission/Residence in War Zone (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = [0.5–1.0], p = .04)
Attack by Family Member (OR = 2, 95% CI = [1.3, 3.1], p = .001)
• Having had sexual contacts as a minor did not signfiicantly correlate with overall QoL
• No significant association was found between near death experience and the social and environmental domains
• No significant association was found between aggression from family members and the psychological and environmental domains
• No signiciant association was found between forced isolation and the social domain.
Kinzie et al. [28] USA Ethiopia, Somalia, Iran and Afghanistan 22 Refugees Longitudinal Refugee psychiatric clinic WHOQOL-BREF HTQ, SDS, CES-D WHOQOL Physical
Time (baseline vs. 1-year follow-up) (p < .001)
WHOQOL Psychological
Time (baseline vs. 1-year follow-up) (p < .001)
WHOQOL Environment
Time (baseline vs. 1-year follow-up) (p = .004)
None reported
Laban, Gernaat, Komproe & de Jongb [29] Netherlands Iraq 294 Asylum Seekers
Group 1: living in the Netherlands < 6 months
Group 2: living in the Netherlands for at least 2 years.
Cross-Sectional Agency for the reception of asylum seekers WHOQOL-Bref [4] PMLP, WHO-CIDI, Physical Health Rating Overall QoL group 1 vs. group 2 (p < .0005, Z(294) = − 5.29) with group 2 scoring lower than group 1
Perceived QoL General Health group 1 vs. group 2 (p = .017, Z(294) = − 2.39) with group 2 scoring lower than group 1.
None reported
Laban, Komproe, Gernaat & de Jongb [30] Netherlands Iraq 294 Asylum Seekers
Group 1: living in the Netherlands < 6 months
Group 2: living in the Netherlands for at least 2 years.
Cross-Sectional Agency for the reception of asylum seekers WHOQOL-Bref [4] HTQ, PMLP, WHO-CIDI Overall QoL was significantly lower in group 2 Z(294) = − 5.29, p = .0005
WHOQOL physical was significantly lower in group 2, t(292) = 3.21, p = .001
WHOQOL psychological was significantly lower in group 2, t(292) = 2.33, p = .020
WHOQOL environment was significantly lower in group 2, t(292) = 5.26, p = .001
Regressing overall QoL on predictor variables was significant (r2 = 0.13, p < .001)
▫ Long Asylum Procedure (β = − 0.17, p < .01)
▫ Adverse life events after arrival in the Netherlands (β = − 0.13, p < .05)
▫ WHOQOL Physical (r2 = .31, p < .01)
▫ Adverse life events after arrival (β = − 0.15, p < .05)
▫ Depression (β = − 0.19, p < .01)
▫ Somatoform disorders (β = − 0.12, p < .05)
▫ One or more psychiatric disorders (β = − 0.19, p < .05)
▫ Older age (β = − 0.14, p < .01)
▫ Socio-economic living conditions (β = − 0.20, p < .01)
WHOQOL Psychological (r2 = .18, p < .01)
▫ Self-reported PTSD (β = − 0.17, p < .05)
▫ Somatoform disorders (β = − 0.15, p < .01)
▫ Socio-economic living conditions (β = − 0.14, p < .05)
▫ Anxiety (β = − 0.17, p < .05)
WHOQOL Social (r2 = .12, p < .01)
WHOQOL Environmental (r2 = .15, p < .01)
Socio-religious aspects (β = 0.12, p < .05)
▫ Self-rated PTSD (β = − 0.14, p < .05)
▫ Socio-economic living conditions (β = − 0.27, p < .01)
• WHOQOL social was not significantly different between group 1 and group 2.
Regression
• Psychopathology and socio-economic living conditions were not associated with overall QoL
• Anxiety disorders, PTSD, long asylum procedure, adverse life events after arrival, and family issues were not associated with physical QoL
• Having one or more psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders, a long asylum procedure, adverse events after arrival and family issues were not associated with psychological QoL
• Psychopathology, adverse events after arrival, family issues and socioeconomic living conditions were not associated with social QoL
• One or more psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, long asylum procedure, adverse events after arrival, and family issues were not associated with environmental QoL
Lee et al. [31] Japan North Korea 81 Refugees (resettled in Japan vs. resettled in South Korea) Cross -sectional Support center WHOQOL-Bref BDI Resettled in Japan vs. Resettled in South Korea
Overall QOL (p < .05), Korea scoring higher
WHOQOL Physical (p < .05), Korea scoring higher
WHOQOL Mental (p < .01), Korea scoring higher
WHOQOL social (p < .05), Korea scoring higher
WHOQOL environment (p < .001), Korea scoring higher
None reported
Leiler et al. [32] Sweden Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Somalia 510 AS&R Cross-sectional Housing facilities WHOQOL-BREF PHQ-9, GAD-7, PC-PTSD WHOQOL Physical
▫ Depression (r = − 0.58, p < .001)
▫ Anxiety (r = − 0.52, p < .001)
▫ PTSD (r = − 0.36, p < .001)
WHOQOL Psychological
▫ Depression (r = − 0.38, p < .001)
▫ Anxiety (r = − 0.32, p < .001)
▫ PTSD (r = − 0.21, p < .001)
WHOQOL Social
▫ Depression (r = − 0.37, p < .001)
▫ Anxiety (r = − 0.37, p < .001)
▫ PTSD (r = − 0.27, p < .001)
WHOQOL Environment
▫ Depression (r = − 0.34, p < .001)
▫ Anxiety (r = − 0.33, p < .001)
▫ PTSD (r = − 0.23, p < .001)
No significant differences found between asylum seekers and refugees neither in the domain scores nor in overall QoL score.
Löfvander, Rosenblad, Wiklund, Bennström & Leppert [33] Sweden Somalia, Iraq, Syria 66 pairs of refugees and matched Swedish born Refugees Longitudinal Case-Control Asylum and integration healthcare center WHOQOL-Bref [4] GHQ-12, GAF Between Groups (Men)
Psychological (Baseline; p = .020)
Social Relations (Baseline; p = .002, 6 Months p < .001, 12 Months p = .001)
Between Groups (Women)
Social Relations (6 Months; p = .030)
Between Groups (Mixed)
Psychological (Baseline; p = .004, 6 Months; p = .025, 12 Months; p = .041)
Social (Baseline; p = .002, 6 Months; p < .001, 12 Months; p = .001)
Between groups (men)
• No significant differences for physical QoL or environmental QoL at any timepoint.
• No significant differences at 6-months or 12-months for psychological QoL.
Between groups (women)
• No significant differences for physical, psychological or environmental QoL at any timepoint.
• No significant differences at baseline or at 12 months for social QoL
Between groups (mixed)
• No significant differences for physical or environmental QoL at any timepoint
Regev & Slonim-Nevo [34] Israel Sudan 300 AS&R Cross-sectional Community WHOQOL-Bref HTQ, PCL-C, BSI, MSPSS Overall model for WHOQOL was significant (r2 = 0.07, p < .001)
Social support  = 0.32, p < .001)
Other’s traumatic events  = 0.27, p < .001)
▫ Gender  = − 0.32, p < .001)
▫ Self-traumatic events  = − 0.20, p < .001)
Length of stay was not a significant predictor of QoL
Slonim-Nevo [35] Israel Sudan 340 AS&R Cross-sectional Community WHOQOL-Bref HTQ, Language proficiency in Hebrew, PMLD, perceived discrimination, PCL-C, BSI, AIS, CSQ, FAD, MSPSS Overall model for WHOQOL Physical was significant (r2 = 0.32, p < .001)
Legal status  = 0.14, p < .01)
▫ PTSD  = − 0.40, p < .001)
▫ Perceived discrimination  = − 0.30, p < .001)
Overall model for WHOQOL Psychological was significant (r2 = 0.31, p < .001)
▫ PTSD status  = − 0.29, p < .001)
▫ Perceived discrimination  = − 0.38, p < .001)
Overall model for WHOQOL Social was significant (r2 = 0.12, p < .001)
▫ PTSD  = − 0.27, p < .001)
▫ Perceived discrimination  = − 0.15, p < .05)
Overall model for WHOQOL Environment was significant (r2 = 0.25, p < .001)
▫ Perceived discrimination  = − 0.24, p < .001)
▫ Post-migration living difficulties  = − 0.38, p < .001)
WHOQOL Physical
Gender
Post-migration living difficulties
WHOQOL psychological
Gender
Legal status
Post-migration living difficulties
WHOQOL Social
Gender
Legal status
Post-migration living difficulties
WHOQOL Environment
Gender
Legal status
PTSD diagnosis
Stammel et al. [36] Germany Iran, Chechnya, Turkey, Syria, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, Other countries of the russian Federation, Armenia, Kenya, Angola, Chile, Lebanon 76 AS&R Longitudinal Center for torture victims EUROHIS-QOL MINI, PDS, HSCL-25, SCL-90-R Multilevel analysis revealed QoL increased significantly after an average of 14 months of treatment (Pseudo R2 = .14, β = 0.42, 95% CI [0.29, 0.55], p < .001). Not specified
Teodorescu, Siqveland, Heir, Hauff, Wentzel-Larsen & Lien [37] Norway Eastern Europe, Africa, Middle East, Far East, Latin America 55 Refugees Cross-Sectional Hospital outpatient department WHOQOL-Bref [4] LEC, CAPS, SCID-PTSD, MINI, IES-R, HSCL-25, PTGI-SF Bivariate correlations
WHOQOL Physical
Posttraumatic growth (rs = .51, p < ..001)
▫ Weak social network (rs = −.35, p < .01)
▫ Poor social integration (rs = −.32, p < .05)
▫ Unemployment (rs = −.34, p < .05)
▫ Posttraumatic stress (rs = −.45, p < .01)
▫ Depression (rs = −.59, p < .001)
WHOQOL Psychological
Posttraumatic growth (rs = .58, p < ..001)
Physical QoL (rs = .73, p < .001)
▫ Weak social network (rs = −.53, p < .001)
▫ Poor social integration (rs = −.37, p < .01)
▫ Unemployment (rs = −.31, p < .05)
▫ Posttraumatic stress (rs = −.53, p < .001)
▫ Depression (rs = −.58, p < .001)
WHOQOL social
Posttraumatic growth (rs = .41, p < .01)
Physical QoL (rs = .46, p < .001)
Psychological QoL (rs = .54, p < .001)
▫ Weak social network (rs = −.61, p < .001)
▫ Poor social integration (rs = −.48, p < .001)
▫ Unemployment (rs = −.37, p < .01)
▫ Posttraumatic stress (rs = −.45, p < .01)
▫ Depression (rs = −.54, p < .001)
WHOQOL environment
Posttraumatic growth (rs = .49, p < .001)
Physical QoL (rs = .48, p < .001)
Psychological QoL (rs = .53, p < .001)
Social QoL (rs = .62, p < .001)
▫ Weak social network (rs = −.56, p < .001)
▫ Poor social integration (rs = −.40, p < .01)
▫ Unemployment (rs = −.38, p < .01)
▫ Posttraumatic stress (rs = −.38, p < .01)
▫ Depression (rs = −.51, p < .001)
Overall QoL
Posttraumatic growth (rs = .47, p < .001)
Physical QoL (rs = .62, p < .001)
Psychological QoL (rs = .71, p < .001)
Social QoL (rs = .39, p < .01
Environmental QoL (rs = .48, p < .001)
▫ Weak social network (rs = −.39, p < .01)
▫ Poor social Integration (rs = −.38, p < .01)
▫ Posttraumatic stress (rs = −.65, p < .001)
▫ Depression (rs = −.70, p < .001)
Regression
WHOQOL Physical (ΔR2 = 0.49, F (4,46) = 13.15, p < .001)
Posttraumatic growth (β = 0.37, 95% CI = [.04, 16.22], p < .01)
WHOQOL Psychological (ΔR2 = 0.56, F (4,46) = 17.97, p < .001)
Posttraumatic growth (β = 0.39, 95% CI = [9.18, 16.37], p < .001)
▫ Depression (β = − 0.31, 95% CI = [9.18, 16.37], p < .05)
WHOQOL Social (ΔR2 = 0.34, F (4,46) = 7.51, p < .001)
▫ Depression (β = − 0.43, 95% CI = [11.21, 21.41], p < .05)
WHOQOL Environmental (ΔR2 = 0.38, F (4,46) = 8.79, p < .001)
Posttraumatic growth (β = 0.33, 95% CI = [11.28, 18.86], p < .01)
▫ Depression (β = − 0.33, 95% CI = [11.28, 18.86], p < .05)
▫ Gender (β = − 0.26, 95% CI = [11.28, 18.86], p < .05)
▫ Unemployment (β = − 0.25, 95% CI = [11.28, 18.86], p < .05)
Correlations
Non-significant correlations reported between age and physical, psychological, social, environmental and overall QoL.
Non-significant correlations reported between gender and physical, psychological, social, environmental and overall QoL.
Non-significant correlation reported between overall QoL and unemployment
Regression model
Posttraumatic stress symptoms did not significantly predict any of the four domains of QoL
Gender did not significantly predict physical, psychological or social QoL.
Depressive symptoms did not significantly predict physical QoL
Posttraumatic growth did not significantly predict social QoL
Unemployment did not significantly predict physical, psychological or social QoL
Trilesnik et al. [38] Germany Not specified 133 Refugees Cross-sectional Psychosocial counseling centers WHOQOL-BREF WEMWBS, HSCL-25, HTQ, SCL-90, PMLDC, Post-migration living difficulties and overall WHOQOL (r = −.54, p < .001) No significant difference between post-treatment and pre-treatment levels of well-being.
Von Lersner et al. [39] Germany Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo, Iraq, Turkey 100 Refugees
(Stayers vs.returnees)
Cross-sectional Refugee centres, language schools and doctors’ offices. EUROHIS-QOL PDS, MINI, Stayers
Healthy participants vs. those with mental disorder(s) (t (37.4) = 5.65, p < .01) with healthy participants having higher QoL
▫ Age and QoL (r = −.39, p < .05)
No significant difference in returnees between mentally healthy participants and participants with at least one mental disorder on QoL
  1. a, bSame dataset has been used although they addressed different research questions. *Discrepancy exists between how the study used the measure and what the purpose of the measure was intended to be. AIS Anger idioms scale. BDI Beck Depression Inventory. BDQ Brief Disability Questionnaire. BSI Brief Symptom Inventory. CAPS Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. CES-D Self reported depression scale. CIDI World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. CRI Coping Resources Inventory. CSQ Culture shock questionnaire. ETI Essen Trauma Inventory. FAD Family assessment device. GAD-7 General anxiety disorder. GAF General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale. GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire. HDS Hamilton Depression Scale. HSCL-25 Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. HTQ Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. ICSEY International Comparative Study of Ethno-Cultural Youth Questionnaire. IES-R Impact of Event Scale-Revised. ISSI Interview Schedule of Social Interaction. LEC Life Events Checklist. MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0. MSPSS Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. NA Not Assessed. PC-PTSD Primary care PTSD screen. PCL-C PTSD checklist civilian version. PDS Post traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. PHQ-9 Patient health questionnaire. PMLP Post Migration Living Problems. PTGI-SF Posttraumatic Growth Inventory Short Form. SASCAT Short version of the adapted social capital assessment tool. SCID-PTSD Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR PTSD Module. SCL-90 Symptom Checklist. SDS Sheehan Disability Scale. SOC-13 Sense of Coherence Scale. F-SozU Social support questionnaire. WEMWBS Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well- Being Scale. WHOQOL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. QLQ Quality of Life Questionnaire
  2. Main findings relevant to SWB and/or QoL
  3. ⎕Negative Predictor
  4. Positive Predictor