Skip to main content

Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression model 2 (weighted): health and healthcare associated with political and economic rights violations

From: Health and healthcare in North Korea: a retrospective study among defectors

Model 2: Multivariate logistic regressiona Household Health Access to Healthcare
Morbidity Mortalityb Healthcare Access Life-threatening illness without care Life-threatening exposure to cold
Political and Civil Rights AOR [95%CI] AOR [95%CI] AOR [95%CI] AOR [95%CI] AOR [95%CI]
Torture & inhumane treatment 1.18 [0.67,2.06] 1.90* [1.06,3.43] 1.04 [0.60,1.83] 3.13*** [1.82,5.37] 2.25** [1.33,3.80]
Discrimination 1.82* [1.09,3.06] 4.45*** [2.37,8.38] 0.64 [0.38,1.08] 2.23** [1.34,3.71] 2.26** [1.36,3.76]
Freedom of movement & residence 3.01*** [1.69,5.38] 5.00*** [1.98,12.65] 0.39** [0.21,0.74] 3.23*** [1.64,6.36] 2.90** [1.53,5.51]
Freedom of thought, expression, & religion 1.80* [1.04,3.11] 5.18*** [2.29,11.72] 1.01 [0.58,1.76] 4.28*** [2.29,8.00] 3.51*** [1.93,6.36]
Arbitrary arrest, disappearance, & detention 2.69*** [1.54,4.70] 5.69*** [2.65,12.24] 0.33*** [0.18,0.59] 8.44*** [4.29,16.62] 3.29*** [1.85,5.84]
Social and Economic rights
 Forced labor 1.86* [1.05,3.29] 9.93*** [3.19,30.92] 0.50* [0.27,0.92] 7.95*** [3.50,18.06] 2.41** [1.31,4.43]
 Rights to Livelihood 4.02*** [2.32,6.96] 4.03*** [2.11,7.69] 0.48** [0.28,0.82] 8.36*** [4.44,15.74] 6.77*** [3.78,12.12]
  1. aMultivariate logistic regression model 2: Health outcomes associated with political and economic rights violations (dependent variables) adjusted for a membership of Workers Party Korea; Household Wealth; Poverty; Informal Market Business, and demographic variables (Gender, Age, Edu, Region of Residence)
  2. bRespondent reporting death of family member due to life threatening illness without care
  3. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001