|Informants for qualitative data|
Individual and group in-depth interviews were conducted with:
i) Ministry of Health officials from the Provincial Office in charge of RMNCAH+N programs, as well as the Chief Medical Officers responsible for the selected health zones;
ii) Staff of United Nations agencies and of national and international non-governmental organizations including senior program managers, technical leads and other positions responsible for RMNCAH+N program planning, implementation and coordination; and.
iii) Healthcare providers including clinicians in charge of RMNCAH+N services, chief nurses and community health workers.
Participation was voluntary. Oral informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participants needed to be 18 years of age or older and working in the position for more than 30 days.
Quantitative data sources
Following data sources were used:
i) The Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED)  provided data on type and number of conflict events, number of fatalities, location and date. This is a reliable conflict data source and one of the leading data sets in conflict epidemiology [12,13,14].
ii) The 2001 and 2010 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and 2007 and 2013–2014 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) reports [6, 15, 16] provided data on key interventions coverage indicators in the RMNCH+N continuum of care at national and provincial levels. Coverage is expressed as the proportion of people who benefited from a certain service among the target population.
iii) National Health Facility Information System as available in the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2). In South Kivu, health facility data existed for the period 2012–2017; in North Kivu only for the period 2015–2017. Facility data analyses were restricted to selected RMNCH indicators for which data availability allowed for comparisons and trends assessment (i.e. first visit of Antenatal Care (ANC1); fourth visit of antenatal care (ANC4), third dose diphtheria -pertussis -tetanus vaccine (DPT3), measles immunization and Caesarian section rate for South Kivu, and ANC1, ANC4, DPT1, DPT3, assisted deliveries, caesarean section, maternal mortality for North Kivu). Health facility data were merged with conflict events at territory level using Microsoft Excel to allow the assessment of the effects of conflict on RMNCAH indicators.
iv) The 2017–2018 Service Provision Assessment report  provided information about the proportion of health facilities providing RMNCAH+N services.
v) Population estimates from the provincial health divisions: the estimates are irregularly updated based on health-related activities such as distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets and were used to estimate intervention coverage based on the health facility data.