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Table 1 Hypothesized domains of post-migration stress, domain rationales, and sample items for each domain

From: The refugee post-migration stress scale (RPMS) – development and validation among refugees from Syria recently resettled in Sweden

DomainRationaleSample items
Perceived discriminationSelf-experienced unfair verbal and non-verbal treatment, interpreted as being performed on the basis of prejudice, intentionally or unintentionally“Feeling disrespected due to my national background”
Lack of host country specific competencesIndividuals’ lack of skills that are instrumental for dealing adequately with and understanding situations, events and procedures that are fairly common in the new society“Difficulties understanding documents and forms from authorities”
Material and economic strainMaterial and economic hardship, that constitutes a threat against one’s integrity, independence, dignity and wellbeing in the host country“Worry about unstable financial situation”
Loss of home countryA longing for a lifestyle and ways of interaction associated with the metaphorical home (or heimat), that was lost through (forced) migration and exile“Longing for my home country”
Family and home country concernsDistress resulting from the impact of past or present conflicts in the home country, and from the consequences these conflicts have on the individual’s family members and loved ones“Worry about family members that I am separated from”
Social strainSocial hardship primarily associated with migration to and settlement in the host country society“Frustration due to loss of status in the Swedish society”
Family conflictsConflicts with significant others that cause tension and/or unwanted emotional responses“Distressing conflicts in my family”