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Table 3 Breastfeeding status

From: Violent conflict and breastfeeding: the case of Iraq

VARIABLES Ever breastfed Breastfed one hour after birth Exclusively breastfeeding
(< 6 months)
Currently breastfeeding (all ages) Currently breastfeeding
(< 6 months)
Currently breastfeeding
(6–24 months)
Average casualty rate − 0.306** − 0.209 − 0.0973 − 0.205* − 0.343** − 0.167
(0.126) (0.293) (0.306) (0.l09) (0.169) (0.127)
[−0.0375] [− 0.0817] [− 0.0274] [− 0.0730] [− 0.0609] [− 0.0649]
Health
 Low birthweight (below 2.5 kg) − 0.228*** − 0.0589 − 0.0687 − 0.186*** − 0.124 − 0.193***
(0.0605) (0.0491) (0.113) (0.0468) (0.107) (0.0608)
[−0.0326] [− 0.0230] [− 0.0188] [− 0.0686] [− 0.0237] [− 0.0763]
 ANC with skilled personnel 0.163*** − 0.0939 − 0.128** − 0.0340 0.0212 − 0.0304
(0.0425) (0.0660) (0.0547) (0.0321) (0.0719) (0.0267)
[0.0214] [− 0.0369] [− 0.0370] [− 0.120] [0.00380] [− 0.0118]
 Childbirth with skilled personnel − 0.0610 − 0.115 0.0390 − 0.0733* − 0.0153 − 0.104**
(0.0544) (0.0798) (0.0792) (0.0392) (0.109) (0.0459)
[−0.00722] [−0.0454] [0.0108] [−0.0257] [− 0.00270] [− 0.0400]
 C-section birth − 0.256*** − 0.902*** − 0.181*** − 0.0597 − 0.174** −0.0939**
(0.0316) (0.104) (0.0640) (0.0410) (0.0772) (0.0386)
[−0.0353] [− 0.315] [− 0.0487] [−0.0214] [− 0.0329] [− 0.0368]
 Contraception − 0.0475 0.00789 − 0.187*** 0.0351 − 0.268*** 0.207***
(0.0302) (0.0392) (0.0528) (0.0304) (0.0535) (0.0431)
[−0.00581] [0.00309] [−0.0525] [0.0125] [−0.0482] [0.0808]
Individual/household
 Male child −0.0324 − 0.00191 0.0981*** 0.0567** 0.0695** 0.0714**
(0.0268) (0.0191) (0.0361) (0.0236) (0.0310) (0.0316)
[− 0.00398] [−0.000750] [0.0276] [0.0202] [0.0124] [0.0278]
 Children ever born 0.0607*** 0.0124 0.0264 0.0596*** −0.00164 0.0511***
(0.0100) (0.00921) (0.0180) (0.0104) (0.0395) (0.0111)
[0.00744] [0.00487] [0.00744] [0.0212] [−0.000292] [0.0199]
 Dead children −0.447*** 0.0294 0.00151 −0.114*** − 0.103 − 0.103***
(0.0325) (0.0236) (0.0724) (0.0319) (0.0865) (0.0390)
[−0.0549] [0.0115] [0.000424] [− 0.0407] [− 0.0184] [− 0.0403]
 Primaparous mother −0.0969* − 0.109** − 0.0966* 0.0692 − 0.0725 0.126***
(0.0501) (0.0447) (0.0571) (0.0485) (0.115) (0.0487)
[−0.0122] [− 0.0426] [− 0.0268] [0.0244] [− 0.0131] [0.0487]
 Child marriage −0.0897 0.00241 −0.112* − 0.0336 0.00170 0.0294
(0.0568) (0.0287) (0.0652) (0.0272) (0.0805) (0.0335)
[−0.0112] [0.000945] [−0.0311] [− 0.0120] [0.000302] [0.0114]
 Husband-wife age difference 0.00647 −4.71e-05 − 0.00569 − 0.00180 − 0.00264 − 0.00102
(0.00421) (0.00221) (0.00363) (0.00263) (0.00692) (0.00273)
[0.000794] [−1.84e-05] [−0.00160] [− 0.000640] [− 0.000469] [− 0.000398]
 Age of mother − 0.0144*** − 0.00117 − 0.0134*** − 0.00989*** 0.00372 − 0.000320
(0.00352) (0.00289) (0.00431) (0.00299) (0.00861) (0.00404)
[−0.00176] [− 0.000457] [− 0.00377] [− 0.00352] [0.000661] [− 0.000125]
 Primary education of mother − 0.0285 − 0.107** − 0.0464 −0.111*** − 0.0998 − 0.0903**
(0.0404) (0.0448) (0.0782) (0.0270) (0.0714) (0.0380)
[−0.00350] [− 0.0420] [− 0.0131] [− 0.0393] [−0.0177] [− 0.0352]
 Secondary education of mother −0.0682 − 0.0845 − 0.172*** − 0.241*** − 0.240*** − 0.228***
(0.0471) (0.0661) (0.0652) (0.0355) (0.0814) (0.0427)
[−0.00756] [− 0.0330] [− 0.0464] [− 0.0878] [− 0.0462] [− 0.0894]
 Mother works 0.0291 0.0180 0.0209 4.71e-05 −0.0653 0.0148
(0.0663) (0.0883) (0.0620) (0.0489) (0.113) (0.0611)
[0.00351] [0.00707] [0.00592] [1.67e-05] [−0.0120] [0.00574]
 Female household head 0.116 0.00323 0.239** −0.128* − 0.0631 − 0.139*
(0.0702) (0.0399) (0.111) (0.0669) (0.128) (0.0764)
[0.0154] [0.00127] [0.0611] [−0.0422] [− 0.0108] [− 0.0531]
Regional
 Urban −0.186*** 0.00626 −0.00783 − 0.0945** − 0.130** − 0.112**
(0.0433) (0.0634) (0.0533) (0.0385) (0.0545) (0.0456)
[−0.0224] [0.00245] [−0.00220] [− 0.0335] [− 0.0230] [− 0.0436]
 Kurd 0.0307 − 0.359* − 0.00890 − 0.407*** − 0.403*** − 0.471***
(0.0820) (0.184) (0.136) (0.0409) (0.0470) (0.0445)
[0.00372] [−0.136] [− 0.00250] [− 0.151] [− 0.0825] [− 0.186]
 Sunni −0.126 − 0.238 −0.119 − 0.102 −0.0565 − 0.165*
(0.0956) (0.212) (0.156) (0.0771) (0.134) (0.0897)
[−0.0160] [−0.0919] [− 0.0329] [− 0.0367] [−0.0102] [− 0.0648]
 Year is 2011 −0.309 0.264* −0.335*** − 0.257*** −0.186 − 0.267***
(0.0827) (0.139) (0.0927) (0.0852) (0.117) (0.0810)
[−0.0319] [0.101] [−0.103] [−0.0868] [− 0.0306] [− 0.101]
 Constant 2.251*** 0.219 −0.138 1.312*** 1.930*** 0.741***
(0.125) (0.205) (0.239) (0.0998) (0.327) (0.136)
 Observations 14,701 13,562 4126 13,434 4126 9308
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered at level of governorate. Marginal effects in brackets, evaluated at the mean. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1