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Table 3 Breastfeeding status

From: Violent conflict and breastfeeding: the case of Iraq

VARIABLESEver breastfedBreastfed one hour after birthExclusively breastfeeding
(< 6 months)
Currently breastfeeding (all ages)Currently breastfeeding
(< 6 months)
Currently breastfeeding
(6–24 months)
Average casualty rate− 0.306**− 0.209− 0.0973− 0.205*− 0.343**− 0.167
(0.126)(0.293)(0.306)(0.l09)(0.169)(0.127)
[−0.0375][− 0.0817][− 0.0274][− 0.0730][− 0.0609][− 0.0649]
Health
 Low birthweight (below 2.5 kg)− 0.228***− 0.0589− 0.0687− 0.186***− 0.124− 0.193***
(0.0605)(0.0491)(0.113)(0.0468)(0.107)(0.0608)
[−0.0326][− 0.0230][− 0.0188][− 0.0686][− 0.0237][− 0.0763]
 ANC with skilled personnel0.163***− 0.0939− 0.128**− 0.03400.0212− 0.0304
(0.0425)(0.0660)(0.0547)(0.0321)(0.0719)(0.0267)
[0.0214][− 0.0369][− 0.0370][− 0.120][0.00380][− 0.0118]
 Childbirth with skilled personnel− 0.0610− 0.1150.0390− 0.0733*− 0.0153− 0.104**
(0.0544)(0.0798)(0.0792)(0.0392)(0.109)(0.0459)
[−0.00722][−0.0454][0.0108][−0.0257][− 0.00270][− 0.0400]
 C-section birth− 0.256***− 0.902***− 0.181***− 0.0597− 0.174**−0.0939**
(0.0316)(0.104)(0.0640)(0.0410)(0.0772)(0.0386)
[−0.0353][− 0.315][− 0.0487][−0.0214][− 0.0329][− 0.0368]
 Contraception− 0.04750.00789− 0.187***0.0351− 0.268***0.207***
(0.0302)(0.0392)(0.0528)(0.0304)(0.0535)(0.0431)
[−0.00581][0.00309][−0.0525][0.0125][−0.0482][0.0808]
Individual/household
 Male child−0.0324− 0.001910.0981***0.0567**0.0695**0.0714**
(0.0268)(0.0191)(0.0361)(0.0236)(0.0310)(0.0316)
[− 0.00398][−0.000750][0.0276][0.0202][0.0124][0.0278]
 Children ever born0.0607***0.01240.02640.0596***−0.001640.0511***
(0.0100)(0.00921)(0.0180)(0.0104)(0.0395)(0.0111)
[0.00744][0.00487][0.00744][0.0212][−0.000292][0.0199]
 Dead children−0.447***0.02940.00151−0.114***− 0.103− 0.103***
(0.0325)(0.0236)(0.0724)(0.0319)(0.0865)(0.0390)
[−0.0549][0.0115][0.000424][− 0.0407][− 0.0184][− 0.0403]
 Primaparous mother−0.0969*− 0.109**− 0.0966*0.0692− 0.07250.126***
(0.0501)(0.0447)(0.0571)(0.0485)(0.115)(0.0487)
[−0.0122][− 0.0426][− 0.0268][0.0244][− 0.0131][0.0487]
 Child marriage−0.08970.00241−0.112*− 0.03360.001700.0294
(0.0568)(0.0287)(0.0652)(0.0272)(0.0805)(0.0335)
[−0.0112][0.000945][−0.0311][− 0.0120][0.000302][0.0114]
 Husband-wife age difference0.00647−4.71e-05− 0.00569− 0.00180− 0.00264− 0.00102
(0.00421)(0.00221)(0.00363)(0.00263)(0.00692)(0.00273)
[0.000794][−1.84e-05][−0.00160][− 0.000640][− 0.000469][− 0.000398]
 Age of mother− 0.0144***− 0.00117− 0.0134***− 0.00989***0.00372− 0.000320
(0.00352)(0.00289)(0.00431)(0.00299)(0.00861)(0.00404)
[−0.00176][− 0.000457][− 0.00377][− 0.00352][0.000661][− 0.000125]
 Primary education of mother− 0.0285− 0.107**− 0.0464−0.111***− 0.0998− 0.0903**
(0.0404)(0.0448)(0.0782)(0.0270)(0.0714)(0.0380)
[−0.00350][− 0.0420][− 0.0131][− 0.0393][−0.0177][− 0.0352]
 Secondary education of mother−0.0682− 0.0845− 0.172***− 0.241***− 0.240***− 0.228***
(0.0471)(0.0661)(0.0652)(0.0355)(0.0814)(0.0427)
[−0.00756][− 0.0330][− 0.0464][− 0.0878][− 0.0462][− 0.0894]
 Mother works0.02910.01800.02094.71e-05−0.06530.0148
(0.0663)(0.0883)(0.0620)(0.0489)(0.113)(0.0611)
[0.00351][0.00707][0.00592][1.67e-05][−0.0120][0.00574]
 Female household head0.1160.003230.239**−0.128*− 0.0631− 0.139*
(0.0702)(0.0399)(0.111)(0.0669)(0.128)(0.0764)
[0.0154][0.00127][0.0611][−0.0422][− 0.0108][− 0.0531]
Regional
 Urban−0.186***0.00626−0.00783− 0.0945**− 0.130**− 0.112**
(0.0433)(0.0634)(0.0533)(0.0385)(0.0545)(0.0456)
[−0.0224][0.00245][−0.00220][− 0.0335][− 0.0230][− 0.0436]
 Kurd0.0307− 0.359*− 0.00890− 0.407***− 0.403***− 0.471***
(0.0820)(0.184)(0.136)(0.0409)(0.0470)(0.0445)
[0.00372][−0.136][− 0.00250][− 0.151][− 0.0825][− 0.186]
 Sunni−0.126− 0.238−0.119− 0.102−0.0565− 0.165*
(0.0956)(0.212)(0.156)(0.0771)(0.134)(0.0897)
[−0.0160][−0.0919][− 0.0329][− 0.0367][−0.0102][− 0.0648]
 Year is 2011−0.3090.264*−0.335***− 0.257***−0.186− 0.267***
(0.0827)(0.139)(0.0927)(0.0852)(0.117)(0.0810)
[−0.0319][0.101][−0.103][−0.0868][− 0.0306][− 0.101]
 Constant2.251***0.219−0.1381.312***1.930***0.741***
(0.125)(0.205)(0.239)(0.0998)(0.327)(0.136)
 Observations14,70113,562412613,43441269308
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered at level of governorate. Marginal effects in brackets, evaluated at the mean. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1