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Table 3 Comparison of mental health problems between the North and South Korean samples

From: Exposure to family and organized violence and associated mental health in north Korean refugee youth compared to south Korean youth

  North (n = 62) South (n = 65) Statistical test
  Fischer’s exact test Mann-Whitney U t
PTSD prevalence, n (%) 8 12.9 1 1.5 6.23*
UPID sum score, M (SD) 17.06 17.96 3.62 8.9 800***
 re-experiencing 3.63 5.01 .59 2.2 1034***
 avoidance 1.76 2.47 .64 1.47 1357**
 negative cognitions/mood 6.71 6.68 1.40 3.38 826***
 arousal 4.97 5.28 1.02 2.57 924***
PHQ-9 sum score, M (SD) 6.87 5.58 5.18 5.45 1.72
SDQ sum score, M (SD) 13.66 5.28 9.52 4.63 4.70***
  1. UPID sum score = PTSD symptom severity; PHQ-9 sum score = depressive symptom severity; SDQ sum score = the severity of total difficulties; M Mean, SD Standard deviation, *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001