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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics

From: Exposure to family and organized violence and associated mental health in north Korean refugee youth compared to south Korean youth

  North (n = 62) South (n = 65) Statistical test
t X 2 Fisher’s exact test
Age (years), M (SD) 19.82 (range: 15–25) 2.81 18.97 (range: 18–21) .53 2.35*
Sex, n (%)
 Male 17 27.4 32 49.2 6.37*
 Female 45 72.6 33 50.8    
Education, n (%)
 Middle school 8 12.9 0 0 164.39***
 High school 54 87.1 0 0    
 High school graduates 0 0 65 100    
Parents alive, n (%)
 Both 31 51.7 64 98.5 41.38***
 One parent only 27 45 1 1.5    
 Both are not alive 2 3.3 0 0    
Household members, n (%)
 Both parents 11 18.6 54 83.1
 One parent 28 47.5 8 12.3    
 Relative/friend/NGO 12 20.3 3 4.6    
 No one 10 16.9 1 1.5    
Economic support, n (%)
 Both parents 6 10 56 87.5
 One parent 25 41.7 7 10.9    
 Relatives/government/NGO 19 31.7 2 3.1    
 Earn my own money 18 27.7 1 1.6    
 Years since arrival in South Korea, M (SD) 2.9
(range: 0–9)
2.1
Duration of flight, n (%)
 1–4 weeks 11 18
 2–12 months 31 50.8    
 1–3 years 9 14.8    
 more than 3 years 10 16.4    
Experienced forced repatriation to North Korea, n (%)
 Yes 6 10.2
 No 53 89.8    
  1. For Household members and Economic support, participants were able to answer multiple responses; M mean, SD Standard deviation, *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001