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Table 3 Relevant crimes committed prior to and during the August 2017 attacks on Rohingya communities of Rakhine state: mixed-methods documentation, including testimony from this qualitative research and results from physical exams [16] and quantitative survey [9]

From: Qualitative evidence of crimes against humanity: the August 2017 attacks on the Rohingya in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar

Genocide: any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group
(a) Killing members of the group; While fleeing, we saw pits full of people (dead bodies) and there was no way to count.
(Buthidaung #8)
Some women who were holding their crying babies were forced to get into the river and then the babies were thrown alive into the river. (Maungdaw #24)
7803 Rohingya died from violent and non-violent causes associated with the August, 2017 attacks and subsequent displacement. (All physical exams conducted among survivors).
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; We can’t do anything or work by our physical structure because of their brutal torturing.
(Buthidaung #16)
89% of hamlets reported violence in their hamlets before flight, most commonly including injuries with weapons, starvation, and attacks on religious leaders. 64% reported violence against civilians in flight, most commonly including shootings and the use of landmines and other weaponry. Gunshot wounds were clinically verified among 68% of physical exam participants; permanent disability among 41%; injury from fire/explosion among 40%; blunt force trauma among 22%; and psychological trauma among 20%.
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; We came to understand that even after destroying all our villages and our properties, even after killing people while running away to escape from the attack, they still intended to kill more people. There was no way to survive inside Myanmar. They would eliminate all of us – even our young generation. (Rathedaung #9) 94% of hamlets reported that their hamlet experienced destruction, including burning or destruction of fields or farms (84%), homes (80%), and mosques (69%). In addition, residents experienced restrictions to travel, marriage, and other rights. Survivor testimonies recounted the organization and execution of the attacks on the Rohingya. Survivor testimony noted that both Muslim and Buddhist health care providers refused care to Rohingya for fear of being persecuted or targeted themselves. After the attacks in August 2017, some respondents described attempting to reach local health workers to treat their wounds but being turned away. Physician-investigator assessments determined that many of these delays resulted in permanent disabilities.
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (No data identified)*
*Measures to prevent marriages was documented:
Authorities restricted marriages. They just postponed it by finding excuses such as “people getting married haven’t reached legal age; the data on the documents submitted is wrong,” and so on. Finding excuses, or faults, they restricted, for example, 10 marriages out of 15 marriages of the applications submitted. We believe that their purpose was to decrease our population.
(Buthidaung #34)
(Not measured) (Not reported)
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (No data identified) (Not measured beyond attacks against and murder of children) (Not reported beyond attacks against and murder of children)
Crimes against humanity: any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack.
Murder They (military) wrapped them in hay, poured fuel on them, and burned them to ash inside the fire of the burning houses. (Rathedaung #9) 12% of hamlet leaders reported observing mass graves in their hamlet or en route to Bangladesh. Physical exams were conducted among survivors; injuries were consistent with testimony of attempted murder by gunshot, explosive devices, and burning.
Extermination They set up landmines in the fields outside all the Rohingya villages… they took positions on the side of the road… they started to shoot with launchers inside the village and set fire to the houses. Then people ran out of the houses. When people ran out of the village and reached the field outside, around 100 people died in the field. (Buthidaung #17) Deaths from violent and non-violent causes during attacks and displacement produced a crude mortality rate of 8.7 per 1000 persons. 42% of physical exam participants reported that family members were dead or missing.
Enslavement They used to ask for 20–30 laborers daily for working at the (BGP/Police) camp. They make people work at the camp, like construction in the camp, clearing bushes, and other things. They don’t pay people even one penny. (Rathedaung #13)
We were used as forced labors. They paid us nothing. When we asked for fees, they started torturing us, saying that it was the fees for us. (Buthidaung #4)
(Not measured) (Not reported)
Deportation or forcible transfer of population The Battalion Commander said “We have been sent here from Burma to kill and eliminate you Bengalis. We have been sent here to attack Bengalis, to burn the houses of Bengalis. You leave as early as possible. Otherwise, we will keep on burning down (your villages) one after one. We will drive you by shooting and by attacking you with launchers. You all leave.” (Rathedaung #5) An estimated 233,826 Rohingya were internally displaced or remained within the northern Rakhine state. After the attacks, an estimated 665,101 Rohingya people were displaced to and living in Bangladesh; 644 Rohingya people were estimated to be missing as a result of the August 2017 attacks. All survivors had been displaced to Bangladesh.
Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law Out of 45 people arrested, one died due to beating. All the rest were taken away. Some of them were released later by taking ransom. People who could not afford to pay ransom were not released. They are still in the prison. (Maungdaw #36) 74% of Rohingya leaders reported that Rohingya individuals in their hamlets had been arrested in the period between Ramadan (June 24, 2017) and their flight during the August attacks. Two interviews were conducted with men who reported being taken from their villages by soldiers before August 26 and detained and tortured as part of ongoing military actions against the Rohingya. These men were part of a group of 67 men reportedly taken from their villages, detained, and tortured during interrogations about political or terrorist affiliations until they were able to pay for their own release.
Torture They dehumanized us in many ways. Life was always in fear for being arrested, tortured, and imprisoned. (Maungdaw #7) (Physical violence measured, but no measure of torture was included) Two interviews were conducted with men who reported being taken from their villages by soldiers before August 26 and detained and tortured as part of ongoing military actions against the Rohingya. These men were part of a group of 67 men reportedly taken from their villages, detained, and tortured during interrogations about political or terrorist affiliations until they were able to pay for their own release.
Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity They raped women/girls in 8–10 houses. There included young adolescent girls, married women, daughters of the family, daughters-in-law of the families. They gathered all girls and women at one place and raped these (who they found good-looking). (Maungdaw #36)
They raped women and girls in front of parents and siblings. So, it is the worst of humanity. (Maungdaw #41)
28% of hamlets reported sexual violence and rape during the attacks. Survivors interviewed during physical exams reported rape, mass rape, and breast mutilation. Several reported being left to burn in buildings. Scars and burns were consistent with testimony.
Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; They used to raid the villages often and trouble the villagers a lot. They used to threaten the villagers, beat the villagers, arrest them, and extort money from the villagers.
The police usually patrolled inside the village at nights and if they found any small light inside the house, for example, while people were having a meal before sunrise during Ramadan, they used to grab people out of the house and beat them. (Buthidaung #9)
They had been persecuting us such as we had to give them money continuously. If we don’t give money to them, they badly beat us, break the bones. (Buthidaung #12)
In addition to widespread murder and violence against all Rohingya, 63% of hamlets reported that religious leaders had been targeted during the attacks and 69% reported that mosques had been burned or destroyed. Additionally, 92% of hamlets reported official meetings prior to the attacks; 94% of these were to inquire about NVCs and 81% of these meetings were perceived as a threat to move. Survivors reported that mosques and crops and other forms of livelihood were often destroyed during the attacks.
Enforced disappearance of persons; Although there were no terrorists, the military arrested wise and wealthier people from the hamlet. (Maungdaw #12)
Many people were arrested and taken away. We estimate around 65 people were arrested. Some of them went missing. We don’t know their whereabouts. (Rathedaung #2)
An estimated 4605 Rohingya were arrested between Ramadan and the August 2017 attacks; of the 74% of hamlets in which members were arrested, 94% indicated that no reason was given for the individuals’ arrest. (Not reported beyond arrests or missing persons)
Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health. Six kids were shot to death and put in a mass grave. After shooting them, the military sent their dogs to bite them. Soon, the military slit their throats and cut off their genitals and took out their eyes. It was heart-stopping seeing that. (Maungdaw #7) Common physical violence against Rohingya people included injury with weapons, gunshot wounds, tying people to or trapping them within burning structures, sexual assault and mass rape, and injury or death by mortars, landmines, RPGs, and grenades, including as Rohingya were fleeing their hamlets. Physical findings included gunshot injuries, blunt trauma, penetrating trauma such as slashings and mutilations, burns and explosive injuries, and injuries from sexual and gender-based violence.