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Table 1 Symptom mapping of five competing PTSD models

From: A factor analytic investigation of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a culturally diverse sample of refugees resettled in Australia

PTSD Symptoms (DSM-5) DSM-5
(4-factor)
Dysphoria
(4-factor)
Dysphoric Arousal
(5-factor)
Anhedonia
(6-factor)
Externalising Behaviours
(6-factor)
B1: Recurrent thoughts of trauma R R R R R
B2: Recurrent dreams of trauma R R R R R
B3: Flashbacks R R R R R
B4: Psychological cue reactivity R R R R R
B5: Physiological cue reactivity R R R R R
C1: Avoidance of thoughts of trauma AV AV AV AV AV
C2: Avoidance of reminders of trauma AV AV AV AV AV
D1: Trauma-related amnesia NAMC D NAMC NA N
D2: Negative beliefsa NAMC D NAMC NA N
D3: Distorted blamea NAMC D NAMC NA N
D4: Persistent negative emotional statea NAMC D NAMC NA N
D5: Diminished interest in activities NAMC D NAMC An N
D6: Feelings of detachment from others NAMC D NAMC An N
D7: Inability to experience positive emotions NAMC D NAMC An N
E1: Irritability or anger A D DA DA EB
E2: Reckless or self-destructive behavioura A D DA DA EB
E3: Hypervigilance A A AA AA AA
E4: Exaggerated startle response A A AA AA AA
E5: Difficulty concentrating A D DA DA DA
E6: Sleeping difficulties A D DA DA DA
  1. A = alternations in arousal and reactivity, AA = anxious arousal, An = anhedonia, AV = avoidance, D = dysphoria, DA = dysphoric arousal, EB = externalising behaviours, H = Hyperarousal, N = numbing, NA = negative affect, NAMC = negative alterations to mood and cognitions, R = re-experiencing. a = symptoms in DSM-5 criteria that were not present in the DSM-IV criteria