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Table 3 Results of linear regression for weight-for-height z-scores. Model 1 has no covariates, Model 2 includes all environmental, household, caregiver, and child covariates, Model 3 has select covariates based on significance in Model 2 (p < 0.05)

From: The impact of the Boko Haram insurgency in Northeast Nigeria on childhood wasting: a double-difference study

  WHZ Model 1 (no covar.) WHZ Model 2 (all covar.) WHZ Model 3 (select covar.)
Coeff. p-value Std. Err. Coeff. p-value Std. Err. Coeff. p-value Std. Err.
States
 Conflict states ref    ref    ref   
 Non-conflict states −0.370 0.001 0.110 −0.481 0.000 0.107 −0.473 0.000 0.105
Period
 2008 ref    ref    ref   
 2013 −0.371 0.000 0.091 −0.273 0.049 0.138 −0.265 0.056 0.138
Double-Difference
 States * Period = 0 ref    ref    ref   
 States * Period = 1 0.463 0.001 0.141 0.486 0.000 0.119 0.486 0.000 0.120
Month
 February     0.294 0.008 0.110 0.278 0.013 0.110
 March     0.252 0.000 0.067 0.246 0.000 0.065
 April     0.240 0.001 0.069 0.234 0.001 0.067
 May     0.223 0.001 0.066 0.205 0.002 0.064
 June     0.323 0.000 0.077 0.319 0.000 0.076
 July     0.387 0.000 0.087 0.394 0.000 0.084
 August     0.338 0.001 0.097 0.327 0.001 0.095
 September     0.125 0.220 0.101 0.114 0.257 0.101
 October     0.412 0.000 0.114 0.380 0.001 0.111
Altitude (m)
 Altitude     −0.001 0.036 0.001 −0.001 0.027 0.000
 Altitude squared     0.000 0.010 0.000 0.000 0.007 0.000
Urban/Rural
 Rural     ref      
 Urban     −0.094 0.745 0.288    
Urban population
 50–100,000     ref    ref   
 100–500,000     0.293 0.330 0.301 0.259 0.401 0.308
  > 1 million     0.805 0.009 0.304 0.721 0.020 0.309
 Not urban     0.103 0.724 0.290
Wealth
 Wealthiest 3 quintiles     ref      
 Poorest 2 quintiles     0.140 0.067 0.076    
Water source
 Unimproved     ref      
 Improved     0.020 0.754 0.064    
Toilet type
 Unimproved     ref      
 Improved     −0.010 0.882 0.068    
No. people in household
 No. people     0.017 0.351 0.018    
 No. people squared     −0.001 0.208 0.000    
No. under fives in household
 No. under fives     0.002 0.981 0.079    
 No. under fives squared     −0.003 0.770 0.010    
Mother’s occupation
 Wage employment     ref      
 Subsistence/own activites     0.017 0.767 0.058    
Partner’s occupation
 Wage employment     ref      
 Subsistence/own activities     −0.042 0.501 0.062    
Mother’s education
 Some education     ref    ref   
 No formal education     −0.132 0.019 0.056 −0.133 0.011 0.052
Partner’s education
 Some education     ref      
 No formal education     −0.077 0.180 0.057    
Mother’s religion
 Other     ref    ref   
 Muslim     −0.252 0.010 0.097 −0.292 0.001 0.089
Child’s age (months)
 Child’s age     −0.018 0.003 0.006 −0.019 0.001 0.005
 Child’s age squared     0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Child’s sex
 Female     ref    ref   
 Male     −0.107 0.007 0.039 −0.090 0.017 0.038
Birth order
 Birth order     0.030 0.349 0.031    
 Birth order squared     −0.002 0.372 0.003    
Intercept Constant −0.366 0.000 0.059 −0.404 0.160 0.287 −0.271 0.460 0.366
R-squared 0.008 0.056 0.054
F-test 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000