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Table 4 Out-of-pocket expenditures for chronic disease care in Lebanon (US dollars)a

From: Prevalence, care-seeking, and health service utilization for non-communicable diseases among Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon

  All NCDs Hypertension Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Chronic resp. disease Arthritis  
  (Refugees n = 895 Host Com. n = 701) (Refugees n = 228 Host Com. n = 232) (Refugees n = 123 Host Com. n = 134) (Refugees n = 120 Host Com. n = 140) (Refugees n = 196 Host Com. n = 77) (Refugees n = 228 Host Com. n = 118)
  Point (95 % CI) Point (95 % CI) Point (95 % CI) Point (95 % CI) Point (95 % CI) Point (95 % CI) p-value
Paid provider for consultationb              
Syrian refugees 69.7 (65.0–74.0) 66.7 (59.2–73.4) 71.4 (61.9–79.4) 70.6 (62.3–77.7) 72.8 (64.7–79.6) 68.7 (60.8–75.6) 0.487
Host community 82.7 (77.9–86.6) 77.0 (70.7–82.3) 81.4 (72.6–87.8) 82.5 (74.5–88.4) 95.7 (87.5–98.6) 87.3 (77.8–93.1) 0.090
p-value (proportion paying) 0.041 0.545 0.608 0.022 <0.001 0.262  
Cost of consultation (USD)b              
Syrian refugees Median 3.3   3.3   6.6   4.6   3.3   3.3   
  Mean 15.3 (12.8–17.8) 14.4 (9.8–18.9) 33.5 (19.6–47.4) 12.0 (8.2–15.7) 11.3 (8.3–14.3) 12 (9.5–14.5) 0.009
Host community Median 33.2   33.2   33.2   33.2   33.2   33.2   
  Mean 42.3 (35.6–49.0) 29.5 (24.8–34.2) 70.0 (44.0–96.1) 31.6 (26.7–36.5) 50.7 (37.7–63.8) 43.3 (27.6–58.9) 0.198
p-value (payment amount) <0.001 <0.001 0.022 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001  
Among cases that paid              
Syrian refugees Median 10   10   13.3   10   6.6   8.3   
  Mean 22.0 (18.6–25.5) 21.7 (14.9–28.5) 47.3 (29.2–65.5) 17.1 (12.0–22.2) 15.6 (11.9–19.2) 17.5 (14.4–20.7) 0.004
Host community Median 33.2   33.2   33.2   33.2   33.2   33.2   
  Mean 51.2 (43.7–58.7) 38.4 (33.3–43.5) 85.6 (54.9–116.3) 38.7 (33.3–44.0) 53.1 (39.7–66.6) 49.1 (31.9–66.2) 0.827
p-value (payment amount) <0.001 <0.001 0.046 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001  
  1. a Bold italic indicates statistically significant (p < 0.50) findings
  2. b Among those seeking care in Lebanon for condition