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Table 1 Conflict and refugee status in the 25 countries with the highest neonatal mortality rate (NMR)[2, 13, 14, 17]

From: Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda

Rank by highest neonatal mortality rate Country Neonatal mortality rate/1,000 live births (UNICEF 2013) UCDP (2011 and 2012) any conflict* UNESCO (2010) report definition of conflictǂ UNHCR (mid-2013) Number refugees from this country UNHCR (mid-2013) Number of refugees in this country UNHCR (mid-2013) IDPs in this country
Includes any: war and minor conflict, non-state conflict and one-sided violence
1 Mali 59 Yes   182,780 14,425 353,455
2 Sierra Leone 59 No Post conflict 5734 4154 0
3 Guinea-Bissau 58 No   1,162 7,787 0
4 South Sudan° 57 Yes N/A 102,651 223,636 401,433
5 Pakistan 56 Yes Armed Conflict 46,046 1,621,525 975,478
6 Ethiopia 54 Yes Armed Conflict 73,926 406,646 0
7 Guinea 54 Yes Post conflict 13,956 10,466 0
8 Mozambique 54 No   63 4,413 0
9 Bangladesh 54 No   9,545 231,138 0
10 Nepal 53 No Armed Conflict 7,323 51,232 0
11 Nigeria 52 Yes Non-State 17,735 1,849 0
12 Angola 52 No Post conflict 16,229 23,718 0
13 India 51 Yes Armed Conflict 11,784 187,024 0
14 Liberia 51 No Post conflict 22,488 58,852 0
15 Malawi 50 No   275 6,369 0
16 Somalia 50 Yes Armed Conflict 1,130,939 2,339 1,122,559
17 Afghanistan 50 Yes Armed Conflict 2,552,208 16,866 5,367
18 Niger 48 No   657 50,424 0
19 Côte d’Ivoire 48 Yes Post conflict 93,738 4,025 24,000
20 Democratic Republic of Congo 47 Yes Armed Conflict 490,095 183,244 2,607,407
21 Equatorial Guinea 47 No   214 0 0
22 Timor-Leste 47 No N/A N/A N/A N/A
23 Central African Republic 47 Yes Extra definitional 221,577 17,732 206,000
24 Chad 47 No Armed Conflict 39,329 418,451 90,000
25 Burundi 46 No Armed Conflict 73,143 44.034 78,948
  1. *Includes any: war and minor conflict, non-state conflict and one-sided violence. Data from 2011 and 2012.
  2. ǂUNESCO report definitions based on battle-related deaths: from Armed Conflict Dataset or the Battle Death Dataset 1990–2008. Conflict-affected means two things: The problems caused by an ongoing or very recent conflict and the problems that associated with a post-conflict country. A conflict defined as active will have produced more than 1000 BRD for the period 1999–2008 in addition to more than 200 BRD in any of the years 2006, 2007 or 2008. If a conflict meets the former criterion but not the latter we classify it as a post-conflict country. Extra definitional was used to denote that conflict was known to occur in this country but did not meet the criteria for each category stated above.
  3. °South Sudan seceded from the Republic of Sudan in 2011. IDP figure in South Sudan includes 209,700 people who are in an IDP-like situation. An unknown number of refugees from South Sudan may be included under Sudan (500,014) (in absence of separate statistics for both countries).