Skip to main content

Table 2 Weighted means and rates of sexual violence: Kenyan adult household-based population (916 respondents)

From: A national population-based assessment of 2007–2008 election-related violence in Kenya

Characteristic Weighted %a(95% CI)
Respondent households reporting sexual violence: all periodsb 26.3 (21.6–30.9)
Female 32.9 (26.9–38.9)
Male 17.0 (12.0–22.0)
  Weighted mean occurrences per 1,000 persons/year
Characteristic Pre-2007 election Election violence c Since conclusion of election violence d
Reported sexual violence 39.1 (25.2–52.9) 2370.1 (1528.5–3211.6) 67.6 (42.4–92.8)
Female 33.3 (21.7–44.9) 1671.8 (1082.0–2261.5) 57.9 (34.4–81.5)
Male 5.7 (0.6–10.8) 695.9 (295.1–1096.6) 9.6 (3.6–15.5)
Reported Sexual Intimate Partner Violence 11.4 (7.8–15.0) 391.2 (238.7–543.8) 16.1 (10.9–21.3)
Female 10.6 (7.2–13.9) 338.8 (213.2–464.4) 14.8 (9.7–19.9)
Male 0.8 (0.0–1.7) 52.4 (4.4–100.4) 1.3 (0.0–2.6)
Reported politically-motivatede sexual violence 24.4 (11.8–37.0) 1600.2 (789.9–2410.5) 38.9 (16.8–61.0)
Perpetrated by men only 17.9 (6.6–29.1) 1267.2 (553.9–1980.4) 30.9 (10.9–50.9)
Perpetrated by women only 5.7 (0.0–11.7) 298.4 (0.0–600.0) 5.3 (0.0–13.5)
Perpetrated by mixed-gender group 3.5 (0.0–8.5) 215.2 (0.0–491.9) 4.4 (0.0–12.4)
Reported opportunistic sexualf violence 5.2 (2.3–8.1) 183.3 (91.1–275.5) 7.8 (4.4–11.3)
Perpetrated by men only 3.7 (1.3–6.2) 109.8 (31.1–188.5) 4.7 (1.9–7.6)
Perpetrated by women only 1.3 (0.0–2.6) 36.0 (3.0–69.0) 1.5 (0.0–3.2)
Perpetrated by mixed-gender group 0.9 (0.0–2.1) 22.6 (0.0–47.6) 1.4 (0.0–3.1)
Sexual violence by male perpetrators 38.7 (24.9–52.5) 2140.9 (1310.7–2971.1) 65.0 (39.8–90.1)
Affiliated with government or political group 18.2 (10.5–25.9) 1506.2 (794.8–2217.7) 27.3 (12.4–42.1)
Stranger unaffiliated with government or political group 2.2 (0.1–4.4) 168.6 (57.3–279.9) 4.2 (0.4–7.9)
No affiliation reported 14.2 (4.0–24.4) 267.0 (0.0–854.5) 27.0 (8.1–45.9)
Friend or known community member 1.0 (0.1–1.8) 116.6 (21.3–211.8) 1.9 (0.2–3.7)
Immediate family member 2.3 (0.2–4.5) 60.5 (11.8–109.2) 2.8 (0.1–5.6)
Intimate Partner 0.7 (0.0–1.4) 21.0 (0.0–43.5) 1.8 (0.3–3.3)
Sexual violence by female perpetrators 12.6 (4.2–20.9) 584.8 (230.7–938.9) 17.1 (5.7–28.6)
Affiliated with government or political group 6.9 (2.0–11.8) 631.5 (86.9–1176.1) 12.6 (1.6–23.5)
Stranger unaffiliated with government or political group 0.7 (0.0–1.7) 70.2 (6.1–134.2) 2.3 (0.0–4.6)
Immediate family member 2.2 (0.0–4.4) 49.4 (3.1–95.7) 2.2 (0.0–4.8)
Intimate Partner (spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend) 2.1 (0.7–3.5) 47.9 (8.2–87.7) 2.9 (0.6–5.2)
Friend or known community member 0.6 (0.0–1.2) 23.1 (0.0–63.0) 1.1 (0.0–2.5)
No affiliation reported 0.6 (0.0–1.4) 13.9 (0.0–41.2) 1.2 (0.0–2.8)
Self-reported consequences of sexual violence Weighted % a (95% CI)
Sexually Transmitted Infection 96.0 (91.8–100.0) 98.5 (96.2–100.0) 97.0 (90.9–100.0)
Bruised and beaten 79.2 (65.5–93.0) 75.5 (57.6–93.5) 70.2 (55.4–85.1)
Anxiety and depression 31.1 (15.1–47.4) 45.1 (31.0–59.2) 33.7 (16.3–51.1)
Bleeding 34.3 (21.1–47.5) 38.2 (17.9–58.5) 26.5 (17.4–35.6)
Stigmatized by family/community 15.0 (3.6–26.4) 29.5 (11.0–48.1) 11.5 (2.4–20.7)
Torn 14.7 (5.4–24.0) 20.8 (5.7–35.9) 16.8 (6.0–27.6)
Pregnant 10.3 (1.8–18.8) 11.1 (0.7–21.6) 9.7 (1.6–17.7)
Reproductive complications 11.9 (0.0–24.9) 10.0 (0.0–21.9) 5.3 (0.0–11.5)
Other 11.1 (1.0–21.1) 19.1 (5.8–32.4) 11.1 (4.3–17.9)
Characteristic Weighted % a (95% CI)
Believes that sexual violence associated with 2007 election was politically-motivated 58.4 (54.1–62.6)
Aware of Sexual Offenses Act of 2006 26.2 (21.9–31.2)
  1. Source: Study Database. Survey results are representative of the adult household-based population in Kenya in September 2011, as defined in Figure 1. aAll statistics are weighted percentages unless otherwise noted. bDifference between “female” and “male” is statistically significant at the p < .001 level (adjusted Wald test of association used). cDue to the 60-day period (January-March 1 2008) for which reported values were measured for election violence, it is possible for a mean during the election violence period to exceed 1,000; election violence includes “likely election violence”, which was determined if a respondent reported a sexual violation and did not report the period of occurrence, but reported the violation occurred in one of the following counties: Kiambu, Nairobi, Nakuru, Nandi, or Uashin Gishu. dDefined as the period from March 2 2008 to administration of the survey in September 2011. eSexual violence occurring during a political circumstance, perpetrated by a political figure or state official, or in which political messages or ethnic slurs were uttered during an attack. fSexual violence that did not meet the criteria for politically-motivated violence. Note: Column values in bold represent mean occurrences for which there are statistically significant differences at or below the .05 level (Pairwise Chi-Square test used to test group differences) between “pre-2007 election” and “since conclusion of election violence”. For a detailed version of the table, please see the Additional file 1.