Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of quantitative studies

From: A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants


Sample and background

Resilience outcome measures*

Mental health outcome and other measures*

Validity/reliability of** measures/language

Statistical test**

Almedom et al.,[29]

265 Eritrean IDP camp dwellers and urban (non-displaced) residents


Not specified

SOC-13 translated, adapted, used in 9 Eritrean languages

t-test (2 tailed), Analysis of Variance (RR)

Jamil et al.,[31]

116 adult Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States

Not specified


Translated/used in Arabic. HSCL-25 Cα; 0.95, 0.88, PDS Cα; 0.94

Descriptive statistics, Pearson chi square

Almedom et al.,[29]

265 Eritrean IDP camp dwellers and urban (non-displaced) residents


Not specified

SOC-13 translated, adapted, used in 9 Eritrean languages

t-test (2 tailed), Analysis of Variance (RR)

Pedersen et al.,[25]

373 adults across five Peruvian rural/semi-rural settlements

Not specified

GHQ-12, HSCL-25, TQ

All instruments subjected to cultural and semantic validation for Quechua language use

Descriptive statistics, Generalized linear regression coefficients

Kuwert et al.,[32]

1513 German participants aged >61 (239 displaced in WWII)



No information on translation/adaptation. RS-11 Cα;0.91, PHQ-2 Cα;0.78, GAD-7 Cα;0.89, FLZM Cα;0.83

X2 test, MANOVA, Stepwise linear regression coefficients

Beiser et al.,[33]

100 adult residents from Niger Delta region of Nigeria

Information on exposure to political conflict, social capital, perceived social support


Translated to Ogoni language, further convergent validation.

Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, stepwise linear regression coefficients

Hooberman et al.,[34]

75 torture-victim refugees in US from Asia (15), Africa (53), Europe (6) and South America (1)

MSPSS, SES, Cognitive appraisal measure. Moderator variable of coping measured via CSI-SF


Translated/back translated in to French/Tibetan, interpreters used. HTQ Cα;0.88

Hierarchical regression models to test moderator effect on resilience variables.


98 Finnish adult evacuees from World War II and 54 non-evacuees



Swedish versions used. PCL-C Cα;0.90, EMBU Cα; 0.90

t-test (2 tailed), X2 test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, OR

Araya et al.,[35]

749 displaced women in Addis Ababa and 110 displaced women in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

Perceived social support captured through Social Provisions Scale, Coping strategies, WHOQOL-BREF

SCL-90-R, WHOQoL-BREF, HTQ section 1

Translated to Amharic and culturally validated.

t-test, X2 test, Multivariate binary logistic regression coefficients

Beiser et al.,[36]

1603 Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto, Canada

Pre/post migration stressors, family-based social support, perceived quality of life


Translated and back translated to Tamil. Interviews conducted in English/Tamil on preference.

Descriptive statistics, OR and AOR

Bhui et al.,[28]

142 Somali refugees in London, UK


MINI, Discrimination experiences, Residential mobility

Translated and back translated to Somali with further tests for reliability/validity

Descriptive statistics, OR


151 Quechua women from Ayacucho, Peru including displaced, non-displaced and returnees


HTQ-GEV & HTQ-PTSD-R for PTSD symptoms, TQ-LID, LSQ, socio-demographics

Translated and back translated from English to Spanish to Quechua. Assessed for cultural and semantic validity, used previously validated HTQ and TQ-LID

Descriptive statistics, Hierarchical regression

Arnetz et al.,[27]

75 Iraqi refugees and 53 non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan, US

RS 8-item version

Modified GHQ, PCL for PTSD, Exposure to violence,

Translated and back translated to Arabic. Questionnaire completed in Arabic by participants

X2 test, t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Linear regression

  1. *SOC-13 - Sense of Coherence 13 item version; HSCL-25 - Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 item version; PDS - Bilingual PTSD and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scales; GHQ-12 - General Health Questionnaire 12 item version; TQ - Trauma Questionnaire; RS-11 - Resilience Scale 11 item version; RS-8 - Resilience Scale 8 item version; PHQ-2 - Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module; GAD-7- Generalised Anxiety Disorder; FLZM - Questions on Life Satisfaction German version; WHO CIDI-K - WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview Section K for PTSD; MSPSS - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; SES - Self-Evaluation Scale; CSI-SF - Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form; HTQ - Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; EMBU - Swedish acronym for “Own Memories of Parental Rearing”; PCL-C - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version; SCL-90-R - Revised Symptom Check List; WHOQoL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life; CPQ -Close Persons Questionnaire; MINI - Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview; CD-RISC - Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; LSQ- Life Stress Questionnaire.
  2. **Cα - Cronbach's Alpha; t-test - Student t-test; RR - Risk Ratio; X2 test - Chi Square test; MANOVA - Multi Variate Analysis of Variance; OR - Odds Ratio; AOR - Adjusted Odds Ratio.