Skip to main content


Table 2 Overview of quantitative studies

From: A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

Study Sample and background Resilience outcome measures* Mental health outcome and other measures* Validity/reliability of** measures/language Statistical test**
Almedom et al.,[29] 265 Eritrean IDP camp dwellers and urban (non-displaced) residents SOC-13 Not specified SOC-13 translated, adapted, used in 9 Eritrean languages t-test (2 tailed), Analysis of Variance (RR)
Jamil et al.,[31] 116 adult Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States Not specified HSCL-25, PDS Translated/used in Arabic. HSCL-25 Cα; 0.95, 0.88, PDS Cα; 0.94 Descriptive statistics, Pearson chi square
Almedom et al.,[29] 265 Eritrean IDP camp dwellers and urban (non-displaced) residents SOC-13 Not specified SOC-13 translated, adapted, used in 9 Eritrean languages t-test (2 tailed), Analysis of Variance (RR)
Pedersen et al.,[25] 373 adults across five Peruvian rural/semi-rural settlements Not specified GHQ-12, HSCL-25, TQ All instruments subjected to cultural and semantic validation for Quechua language use Descriptive statistics, Generalized linear regression coefficients
Kuwert et al.,[32] 1513 German participants aged >61 (239 displaced in WWII) RS-11 PHQ-2, GAD-7, FLZM No information on translation/adaptation. RS-11 Cα;0.91, PHQ-2 Cα;0.78, GAD-7 Cα;0.89, FLZM Cα;0.83 X2 test, MANOVA, Stepwise linear regression coefficients
Beiser et al.,[33] 100 adult residents from Niger Delta region of Nigeria Information on exposure to political conflict, social capital, perceived social support WHO-CIDI-K for PTSD Translated to Ogoni language, further convergent validation. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, stepwise linear regression coefficients
Hooberman et al.,[34] 75 torture-victim refugees in US from Asia (15), Africa (53), Europe (6) and South America (1) MSPSS, SES, Cognitive appraisal measure. Moderator variable of coping measured via CSI-SF HTQ for PTSD Translated/back translated in to French/Tibetan, interpreters used. HTQ Cα;0.88 Hierarchical regression models to test moderator effect on resilience variables.
Andersson,[26] 98 Finnish adult evacuees from World War II and 54 non-evacuees EMBU PCL-C Swedish versions used. PCL-C Cα;0.90, EMBU Cα; 0.90 t-test (2 tailed), X2 test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, OR
Araya et al.,[35] 749 displaced women in Addis Ababa and 110 displaced women in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Perceived social support captured through Social Provisions Scale, Coping strategies, WHOQOL-BREF SCL-90-R, WHOQoL-BREF, HTQ section 1 Translated to Amharic and culturally validated. t-test, X2 test, Multivariate binary logistic regression coefficients
Beiser et al.,[36] 1603 Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto, Canada Pre/post migration stressors, family-based social support, perceived quality of life WHO-CIDI-K for PTSD Translated and back translated to Tamil. Interviews conducted in English/Tamil on preference. Descriptive statistics, OR and AOR
Bhui et al.,[28] 142 Somali refugees in London, UK CPQ MINI, Discrimination experiences, Residential mobility Translated and back translated to Somali with further tests for reliability/validity Descriptive statistics, OR
Suarez,[37] 151 Quechua women from Ayacucho, Peru including displaced, non-displaced and returnees CD-RISC HTQ-GEV & HTQ-PTSD-R for PTSD symptoms, TQ-LID, LSQ, socio-demographics Translated and back translated from English to Spanish to Quechua. Assessed for cultural and semantic validity, used previously validated HTQ and TQ-LID Descriptive statistics, Hierarchical regression
Arnetz et al.,[27] 75 Iraqi refugees and 53 non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan, US RS 8-item version Modified GHQ, PCL for PTSD, Exposure to violence, Translated and back translated to Arabic. Questionnaire completed in Arabic by participants X2 test, t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Linear regression
  1. *SOC-13 - Sense of Coherence 13 item version; HSCL-25 - Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 item version; PDS - Bilingual PTSD and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scales; GHQ-12 - General Health Questionnaire 12 item version; TQ - Trauma Questionnaire; RS-11 - Resilience Scale 11 item version; RS-8 - Resilience Scale 8 item version; PHQ-2 - Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module; GAD-7- Generalised Anxiety Disorder; FLZM - Questions on Life Satisfaction German version; WHO CIDI-K - WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview Section K for PTSD; MSPSS - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; SES - Self-Evaluation Scale; CSI-SF - Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form; HTQ - Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; EMBU - Swedish acronym for “Own Memories of Parental Rearing”; PCL-C - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version; SCL-90-R - Revised Symptom Check List; WHOQoL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life; CPQ -Close Persons Questionnaire; MINI - Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview; CD-RISC - Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; LSQ- Life Stress Questionnaire.
  2. **Cα - Cronbach's Alpha; t-test - Student t-test; RR - Risk Ratio; X2 test - Chi Square test; MANOVA - Multi Variate Analysis of Variance; OR - Odds Ratio; AOR - Adjusted Odds Ratio.