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Table 5 Multi-level model of effect of armed conflict on language, personal-social, fine motor and gross motor development

From: Growth and development of children aged 1–5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey

Variables Developmental sub-domain
Language Personal-social Fine motor Gross motor
OR(95% CI§) P-value OR(95% CI§) P-value OR(95% CI§) P-value OR(95% CI§) P-value
Sub-district level
Violence event rate (1stquartile = ref.)         
 2nt quartile 0.8(0.4,1.7) 0.67 0.5(0.3,1.2) 0.15 0.5(0.2,1.4) 0.10 0.4(0.1,1.2) 0.11
 3rt quartile 0.5(0.2,1.0) 0.05 0.3(0.1,0.8) 0.01 0.7(0.3,1.7) 0.43 0.6(0.2,1.7) 0.36
 4th quartile 1.8(0.4,1.6) 0.52 0.4(0.2,0.9) 0.05 0.6(0.3,1.5) 0.33 0.6(0.2,1.7) 0.40
Average household income of the sub-district 1.0(0.9,1.0) 0.05 0.9(0.9,1.0) 0.43 0.9(0.9,1.0) 0.42 0.9(0.9,1.0) 0.89
Individual level
Age group (12–23 months = ref.)         
 24–35 months 1.3(0.6.2.8) 0.46 5.3 (1.7,16.7) 0.004 2.5(0.8,7.3) 0.10 2.4(0.7,7.9) 0.14
 36–47 months 4.0(2.0,8.1) 0.002 9.2 (3.0,28.1) <0.001 4.6(1.7,12.9) 0.003 6.8(2.4,19.6) <0.001
 48–60 months 3.8(1.8,8.0) 0.004 5.2 (1.6,16.6) 0.006 13.9(5.1,37.6) <0.001 3.9(1.3,12.1) 0.17
Caregiver’s education (≤Primary School = ref.)         
 > Primary 1.3(0.8,2.1) 0.32 0.7(0.4,1.3) 0.33 0.6(0.4,1.1) 0.09 1.2(0.6,2.3) 0.54
Household income (<Poverty line = ref.)         
 ≥poverty line 0.7(0.4,1.1) 0.13 0.7(0.4,1.2) 0.21    0.5(0.2,1.1) 0.07
Ethnicity (Malay = ref.)         
 Thai 0.3(0.2,0.7) 0.004 0.7(0.3,1.5) 0.33 0.5(0.2,1.1) 0.07 0.3(0.1,0.8) 0.03
Birth weight (≥ 2,500 g = ref.)         
 <2,500 g 0.8(0.4,1.7) 0.61 1.0(0.5,2.3) 0.93 1.4(0.6,2.9) 0.44 0.9(0.4,2.5) 0.99
Stimulated by singing (Yes = ref.)         
 No 2.1(1.1,3.8) 0.02 -   1.7(0.8,3.4) 0.14 -  
  1. OR: Adjusted Odds Ratio, §CI: Confidence interval, P-value for Wald test.