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Table 4 Multi-level model showing associations between armed conflict and underweight, stunting, and wasting

From: Growth and development of children aged 1–5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey

Determinant Underweight Stunting Wasting
OR(95% CI§) P-value OR(95% CI§) P-value OR(95% CI§) P-value
Sub-district level
Violence event rate (1stquartile = ref.)       
 2nt quartile 1.1 (0.5,2.4) 0.80 0.9 (0.4,1.9) 0.83 0.8 (0.3,3.0) 0.45
 3rt quartile 0.8 (0.4,1.8) 0.70 0.6 (0.3,1.4) 0.26 1.2 (0.4,4.0) 0.80
 4th quartile 0.9 (0.4,2.0) 0.78 0.8 (0.4,1.8) 0.59 1.4 (0.4,4.8) 0.75
Average household income of the sub-district 1.0 (0.9,1.0) 0.92 1.0 (0.9,1.0) 0.57 0.9 (0.9,1.0) 0.72
Individual level
Age group (12–23 months = ref.)       
 24–35 months 1.8 (0.8,3.9) 0.14 0.8 (0.4,1.5) 0.50 0.4 (0.1,1.3) 0.13
 36–47 months 1.7 (0.8,3.6) 0.16 1.1 (0.6,2.0) 0.75 0.3 (0.1,1.1) 0.07
 48–59 months 1.6 (0.7,3.5) 0.27 0.5 (0.3,1.0) 0.05 0.7 (0.2,2.3) 0.56
Birth weight (2,500 g = ref.)
< 2,500 g 4.4 (2.2,8.8) <0.001 2.0 (0.9,3.6) 0.05 2.9 (1.1,7.4) 0.03
Caregiver’s education (≤ Primary School = ref.)
 >Primary School 0.7 (0.4,1.3) 0.32 0.8 (0.5,1.2) 0.29 0.7 (0.3,1.7) 0.50
Household income (< Poverty line = ref.)
 ≥ poverty line 0.6 (0.3,1.1) 0.09 0.6 (0.4,1.0) 0.05 1.7 (0.8,3.8) 0.18
Ethnicity (Malay = ref.)
 Thai 0.3 (0.2,0.8) 0.02 0.4 (0.2,0.7) 0.04 - -
  1. OR: Adjusted Odds Ratio, §CI: Confidence interval, P-value for Wald test.