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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, child rearing and health status of the children (n = 498)

From: Growth and development of children aged 1–5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey

Characteristic Frequency Quartile level of the intensity of violence, n(%) P-value**
(%) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  (≤18.0)* (18.1–33.5)* (33.6–50.0)* (>50.0*)
Demographic characteristics       
Sex       0.39
 Female 240 (48.2) 49 (41.9) 69 (49.3) 71 (55.0) 51 (45.5)  
 Male 258 (51.8) 68 (58.1) 71 (50.7) 58 (45.0) 61 (54.5)  
Age group       0.99
 12–23 months 116 (23.3) 28 (23.9) 35 (25.0) 30 (23.3) 23 (20.5)  
 24–35 months 127 (25.5) 28 (23.9) 38 (27.1) 30 (23.3) 31 (27.7)  
 36–47 months 129 (25.9) 31 (26.5) 34 (24.3) 36 (27.9) 28 (25.0)  
 48–60 months 126 (25.3) 30 (25.6) 33 (23.6) 33 (25.6) 30 (26.8)  
Child rearing       
 Exclusive BF up to 6 months 79 (16.0) 16 (13.7) 17 (12.2) 23 (18.1) 23 (20.9) 0.02
 Prolonged BF longer than 12 months 93 (19.7) 19 (17.0) 29 (22.5) 21 (16.8) 24 (22.9) 0.88
 Had complete immunization 219 (44.8) 66 (57.9) 61 (43.6) 54 (43.5) 38 (34.2) 0.02
 Caregiver found to have depression 208 (41.9) 48 (41.0) 53 (37.9) 53 (41.4) 54 (48.2) 0.77
Developmental stimulation       
 Singing 420 (84.3) 98 (83.8) 119 (85.0) 113 (87.6) 90 (80.4) 0.69
 Story telling 353 (70.9) 76 (65.0) 101 (72.1) 100 (77.5) 76 (67.9) 0.29
 Reading 444 (89.2) 101 (86.3) 131 (93.6) 120 (93.0) 92 (82.1) 0.01
 Group playing 495 (99.4) 116 (99.1) 140 (100.0) 129 (100.0) 110 (98.2) 0.17
Sick within 12 months       0.81
 < 2 times 102 (20.5) 27 (23.1) 25 (17.9) 26 (20.2) 24 (21.4)  
 2–5 times 215 (43.2) 54 (46.2) 66 (47.1) 50 (38.8) 45 (40.2)  
 > 5 times 181 (36.3) 36 (30.8) 49 (35.0) 53 (41.1) 43 (38.4)  
Health problems within past 12 months       
 Parasitic infection 212 (43.2) 32 (27.8) 58 (42.3) 67 (51.9) 55 (50.0) < 0.001
 Asthma 130 (26.1) 32 (27.4) 34 (24.3) 26 (20.2) 38 (33.9) 0.45
 Admitted in past 12 months 96 (19.3) 26 (22.2) 26 (18.6) 15 (11.7) 29 (25.9) 0.002
 >1-day illness in past 3 months 146 (29.4) 37 (31.6) 46 (32.9) 37 (28.9) 26 (23.2) 0.58
  1. BF: Breast feeding, Not mutually exclusive, * Incidents of armed conflict per 100,000 population per year, **P-value for Chi-square test (Rao-Scott adjustment).