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Table 2 Psychopathology in survivors and former prisoners of the Rwandan genocide and their respective descendants

From: Rwanda – lasting imprints of a genocide: trauma, mental health and psychosocial conditions in survivors, former prisoners and their children

Measures Survivors Former prisoners Statistics Desc. of survivors Desc. of former prisoners Statistics
PTSD       
  Diagnosis % (n) 24.7 (22) 22.0 (18) n.s. 15.5 (15) 1.1 (1) χ2(1,188) = 12.4***
  Severity score M (SD) 10.2 (8.1) 11.1 (10.8) U = 2753.0* 5.3. (8.3) 1.4 (3.8) U = 2866.5***
  - Cluster: Intrusions 3.9 (4.0) 3.9 (4.4) n.s. 2.0 (2.9) .8 (1.8) U = 3022.0***
  - Cluster: Avoidance 3.9 (4.6) 2.9 (4.3) U = 2846.5* 1.8 (3.2) .6 (1.8) U = 3271.5***
  - Cluster: Arousal 2.8 (3.6) 1.9 (3.2) U = 2797.0** 1.4 (2.8) .2 (1.0) U = 3228.5***
Anxiety       
  Severity score M (SD) 17.2 (7.6) 15.4 (7.8) U = 2951.0* 13.9 (5.5) 12.2 (4.7) U = 3445.0**
Depression       
  Severity score M (SD) 20.7 (7.8) 19.0 (6.4) U = 2993.0* 17.1 (4.1) 16.1 (3.0) U = 3759.0*
Alcohol Abuse % (n) 6.7 (6) 14.6 (12) n.s. 2.1 (2) 3.3 (3) n.s.
Drug Abuse % (n) 2.2 (2) 1.2 (1) n.s. 1.0 (1) 1.1 (1) n.s.
Suicidality % (n)       
  None 75.3 (67) 92.7 (76) χ2(1,172) = 9.4** 89.7 (87) 97.8 (89) χ2(1,188) = 5.1*
  Low level 18.0 (16) 4.9 (4) χ2(1,172) = 7.1** 7.2 (7) 2.2 (2) n.s..
  Medium level 2.3 (2) - n.s. 1.0 (1 - n.s.
  High level 4.5 (4) 2.4 (2) n.s. 2.1 (2) - n.s.
  1. Note: *p < .05; **p < .01; *** p < .001.