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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Rwanda – lasting imprints of a genocide: trauma, mental health and psychosocial conditions in survivors, former prisoners and their children

  Survivors (n = 90) Former prisoners (n = 83) Statistics Descendants of survivors (n = 97) Descendants of former prisoners (n = 90) Statistics
Gender % (n)       
  Male 28.9 (26) 90.2 (74) χ2(1,172) = 66.4*** 43.3 (42) 50.5 (46) n.s.
  Female 71.1 (64) 9.8 (8)   56.7 (55) 49.5 (45)  
Age 51.6 (10.3, 30–77) 53.9 (7.9, 34–81) n.s. 21.1 (5.9, 13–31) 21.6 (5.8, 13–31)  
Marital Status % (n)       
  Single 4.5 (4) 1.2 (1) n.s. 91.8 (89) 85.7 (78) n.s.
  Married 38.9 (35) 82.9 (68) χ2(3,172) = 34.6*** 6.2 (6) 13.2 (12) n.s.
  Divorced/ Separated 3.3 (3) 4.9 (4) n.s. 2.0 (2) 1.1 (1) n.s.
  Widowed 53.3 (48) 11.0 (9) χ2(3,172) = 34.7*** - -  
Number of children M (SD, range) 6.0 (2.76, 1–13) 6.8 (2.63, 2–16) U = 2971.5* 0.3 (1.03, 0–5) 0.3 (0.92, 0–6) n.s.
Years of Schooling M (SD, range) 5.2 (3.48, 0–14) 3.7 (3.28, 0–14) U = 2811.5** 6.71 (3.18, 0–16) 5.42 (3.02, 0–17) U = 3251.0**
Highest degree obtained % (n)       
  No degree 48.9 (44) 61.0 (50) n.s. 39.2 (38) 58.2 (53) χ2(2,188) = 6.8**
  Primary School 46.7 (42) 35.4 (29) n.s. 45.4 (44) 34.1 (31) n.s.
  Secondary School 4.4 (4) 3.6 (3) n.s. 15.4 (15) 7.7 (7) n.s.
Possessions % (n)       
  House 93.3 (84) 98.8 (81) n.s. n.a. n.a.  
  Agricultural Field 80.0 (72) 96.3 (79) χ2(1,172) = 10.7*** n.a. n.a.  
Monthly Income M (SD, range) 2922.2 (6849.5, 0–41.000) 3695.1 (6051.6, 0–35.000) n.s. n.a. n.a.  
Social Integration       
  Number of friends M (SD, range) 4.3 (4.0, 0–20) 4.9 (3.7, 0–20) n.s. 4.3 (4.5, 0–25) 4.6 (3.6, 0–20) n.s.
  Community activities % (n) 94.4 (85) 92.7 (76) n.s. n.a n.a.  
  Memberships in cooperatives M (SD, range) .7 (.8, 0–3) .7 (.9, 0–5) n.s. n.a. n.a.  
Family members lost in 1994 M (SD, range) 14 (1.6, 0–70) 3 (.4, 0–24) U = 1032.5*** n.a. n.a.  
Displacement due to genocide % (n) 98.9 (89) 82.9 (68) U = 13.7*** n.a. n.a.  
Destination of displacement % (n)     n.a. n.a.  
  Same district 75.5 (68) 15.9 (13) χ2(1,172) = 61.4*** n.a. n.a.  
  Other district (Bugesera, Kibuye) 23.3 (21) 59.8 (49) χ2(1,172) = 23.6*** n.a. n.a.  
  Foreign country (DRC) - 7.3 (6) χ2(1,172) = 6.8** n.a. n.a.  
Years spent in prison M (SD, range) n.a. 8.5 (4.4, .2-15.7)   n.a. n.a.  
  1. Note: *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
  2. n.a. = not assessed as data for the generation born after 1994 was missing.