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Table 3 Perceived treatment options for locally defined conditions in four African settings

From: Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

  Traditional healers Health care facilities Family and community interventions
Kwajena (South Sudan)    
Moul Visit ruedbedho (‘spear master’) to chase spirits away Health centre in case malaria is cause  
Ngadeyeadh (herbalist) who can give herbs   
Wehie Arir Visit ruodbedho (‘spear master’) to understand the cause Health centre (medicine to calm patient down) Try to replace the things or persons he has lost
  Medicines if caused by malaria Relatives or elders in community should talk to person
   Pray in the church together with the patient
   Prevent person from drinking alcohol and smoking cannabis
Nger yec    Relatives or elders in community should talk to person and give advice to overcome the sadness
   Compensate person for the losses he suffered
   Invite the person to come to your house
Yei (South Sudan)    
Mamali Visit a buni (traditional soothsayer) to find out the cause and perform rituals to chase away the spiritual forces   Praying to calm down a patient
Ngengere Some healers have herbs to calm person down   
Yeyeesi    Family or religious leader talk with the person and give him advice
   The family and neighbours should also help the patient not to be alone and to involve him in activities, in particular those that can give him income
   Elders from the church can visit the person and pray together.
Butembo (DRC)    
Erisire Mukumu (traditional healers who work with spirits), if there are supernatural causes Visit a health facility to check if there is malaria or another physical cause  
Musaki (herbal healers) for herbal medicine Visit mental health centre in town  
Christian pastors who can pray with the patient   
In case of possession by ancestral spirits, one should construct a vuhima, a small house for the ancestors   
Alluhire    Provide him money, goods or work
   Visit the person
   Pray with the person
   Ensure that the person is not alone.
   Involve him in communal work in the village
Kibuye (Burundi)    
Ibisazi In case of sorcery: traditional healer Provincial hospital  
In case of bad spirits: praying and rituals in the church (three groups)   
Ibonge    Family and try to comfort person
   Encourage person to talk about his problems
   Replace the loss
Ihahamuka    Family to listen to the person
   Family and friends should help the person to do the things he is afraid of