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Table 2 Reported GBV experiences: Types of violence and perpetrators, by reported location of incident

From: Development of a screening tool to identify female survivors of gender-based violence in a humanitarian setting: qualitative evidence from research among refugees in Ethiopia

Location where violence was reported to occur
Violence construct Country of origin   Transit to or within host country Host country – urban and camp settings
Psychological violence General threats of violence or rape by armed actors, threats against family   Coercion for assistance with transportation or shelter Threats of violence, kidnapping
- Armed actors   - Strangers, acquaintances - Intimate partner, family, family of partner (based in host country, other displaced setting, or country of origin)
Forced witness of murder rape, including that of family members or neighbors   Forced witness of rape of others in transit Threats of withholding finances or food assistance
    - Armed actors, strangers - Intimate partner, employer
- Armed actors   - NGO officer (camp)
Type Social stigmatization or isolation on the basis of single marital status, marital choice, FGM choice   Coercion for assistance with finances, food assistance, or shelter
- Perpetrator(s)    
- Home community, family, religious affiliates   - Intimate partner, employer
   - Other male refugee camp resident,
Social stigmatization or isolation on the basis of sexual violence experience   Social stigmatization or isolation on the basis of single marital status, marital choice, FGM choice
- Home community, family, religious affiliates   - Refugee community, family, religious affiliates
Social stigmatization or isolation with emphasis on religious, ethnic differences   Social stigmatization or isolation on the basis of sexual violence experience
- Armed actors, home community   - Community, family, religious affiliates, refugee community,
   Social stigmatization or isolation due to religious, ethnic, clan differences
   - Refugee community, host community
Physical violence Physical violence including beatings or torture   General physical violence, General physical violence
- Armed actors, religious leaders or affiliates,   - Strangers, - Strangers, family, partner's family
   -Host community, other refugee community member(s), other clan or ethnic group,
Type Imprisonment   Imprisonment
- Perpetrator(s) - Armed actors   - Strangers
Kidnapping/abduction   Kidnapping/abduction
-Armed actors, partner's family   - Strangers, partner's family
Intimate partner violence   Intimate partner violence
- Husband, ex-husband, boyfriend   - Husband, ex-husband, boyfriend
Other violence   Re-victimization after reporting or disclosure of GBV
- Family, partner's family, other ethnic group/clan   - Prior perpetrator (including but not limited to husband, ex-husband, boyfriend, neighbor/refugee community member)
Violence during pregnancy   Violence during pregnancy
- Armed actors   - Husband, ex-husband, boyfriend
Sexual exploitation and violence Coerced sex   Coerced sex Coerced sex
- Armed actors   - Strangers (including those providing assistance with transit), acquaintances - Strangers
   - Other refugee community member, employer, NGO staff member (camp)
Type Rape   Rape Rape
- Perpetrator(s) -Armed actors, family or partner's family, stranger, religious leader or affiliate, other community member   - Armed actors, strangers (including those providing assistance with transit) - Intimate partner, family or partner's family member, stranger, religious leader or affiliate, other neighbor or community member.
Gang rape   Gang rape -Host community member, religious leader or affiliate, employer, NGO staff leader (camp)
- Armed actors   - Armed actors  
Rape during pregnancy   
- Armed actors   
Widow inheritance   Gang rape
- Husband’s family, home community   - Strangers
Unwanted sexual touching-   Unwanted sexual touching
Armed actors, family or partner's family, stranger, religious leader or affiliate, other community member   - Intimate partner, family or partner's family member, stranger, religious leader or affiliate, other neighbor or community member.
   Financial control
   - Husband, boyfriend
Other violence types FGM or pressure to complete FGM on child   FGM or pressure to complete FGM on child
- Home community, family, religious affiliates   - Refugee community, family, partner's family, religious affiliates
   Early or forced marriage
- Perpetrator(s)    - Pressure by family, extended family, refugee community (camp)