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Table 3 Incidence rate ratios for pneumonia and diarrheaa

From: Incidence and risk factors for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea in children under 5 in UNHCR refugee camps: A retrospective study

  Pneumonia Diarrhea
  Unadjusted Adjusted b Unadjusted Adjusted b
Camp Location & Size
Small (< 10,000) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium (10,000-19,999) 1.11 (0.89-1.39) 1.43 (0.90-2.26) 1.09 (0.85-1.39) 1.80 (1.07-3.03)
Large (≥20,000) 1.35 (0.88-2.08) 2.07 (1.03-4.15) 1.48 (0.98-2.25) 2.16 (1.04-4.49)
Africac Reference Reference Reference Reference
Asia 4.52 (3.18-6.41) 1.65 (0.79-3.43) 1.93 (1.52-2.45) 0.77 (0.35-1.71)
Water and Sanitation (reference category is below the specified standard) d
Water Quantity 1.04 (0.70-1.53) 1.06 (0.66-1.70) 1.01 (0.53-1.94) 0.95 (0.66-1.37)
Water Access 1.32 (0.94-1.86) 1.04 (0.77-1.40) 1.33 (0.94-1.89) 1.27 (0.85-1.89)
Water Proximity 1.32 (1.12-1.54) 1.38 (1.06-1.81) 0.84 (0.55-1.28) 1.03 (0.74-1.44)
Latrine Access 0.92 (0.82-1.03) 0.91 (0.79-1.06) 0.91 (0.74-1.13) 1.04 (0.83-1.31)
Latrine Coverage 0.77 (0.49-1.22) 0.77 (0.49-1.21) 0.81 (0.61-1.08) 0.97 (0.65-1.46)
Soap Access 0.85 (0.62-1.16) N/Ae 0.89 (0.72-1.10) N/Ae
Nutrition Standards (reference category is below the specified standard) d
Global Acute Malnutrition 0.86 (0.75-0.98) 1.01 (0.74-1.37) 0.94 (0.78-1.14) 1.00 (0.68-1.46)
Ration Adequacy 1.06 (0.85-1.31) 1.18 (0.86-1.63) 1.18 (1.01-1.37) 1.09 (0.79-1.51)
Health Service Utilization
New Visits (per 10 persons/month) 1.71 (1.42-2.05) 1.73 (1.26-2.37) 1.31 (0.99-1.74) 1.90 (1.38-2.62)
Growth Monitoring (%)f 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 1.01 (1.00-1.01) 1.01 (1.00-1.01)
  1. a Bold indicates statistically significant results (p < 0.05)
  2. bThe adjusted model included all of the variables shown, but was restricted to camps in 2007-2009 that had at least 8 months of data in a given year.
  3. c Africa includes Yemen
  4. d The IRR compares meeting or exceeding the standard to falling below the standard. The reference categories for UNHCR performance standards and indicators are as follows: water quantity > 20 L/person/day; water access < 80 persons per tap; water proximity 100% within 200 m; latrine access ≤20 person per latrine; latrine coverage 100% of households; soap access ≥90% of households with > 250 g soap/person/month; global acute malnutrition prevalence < 10%; and average kCals per person per day ≥2100 (in 2007 the indicator was minimum kCals per person per day).
  5. eAccess to soap was only reported for 2008 and 2009. So as to not exclude 2007 data, soap was not included in the adjusted model.
  6. f IRR for every 1% increase in growth monitoring utilization