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Table 1 Characteristics of UNHCR refugee camps by regiona

From: Incidence and risk factors for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea in children under 5 in UNHCR refugee camps: A retrospective study

  Africa
(n = 117)b
Asia
(n = 36)
p-valuec
Camp Population d    
   Total population (%)    0.007
< 10,000 26.5 25.0  
10,000-< 20,000 37.6 63.9  
≥20,000 35.9 11.1  
   Under five (U5) population [mean (95% CI)] 3812 (3180-4445) 1761 (1405-2117) < 0.001
Incidence Rates (U5 cases/1000 population/month) d    
   Malaria 84.7 (67.5-102.0) 2.2 (1.4-3.0) < 0.001
   Pneumonia 59.2 (49.8-68.7) 254.5 (207.1-301.8) < 0.001
   Diarrhea 35.5 (28.7-42.4) 69.2 (61.0-77.5) < 0.001
Health Facility Utilization d    
   New visits/person/month 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 0.29 (0.27-0.32) < 0.001
   Growth monitoring utilization (%) 37.3 (31.4-43.1) 64.8 (55.2-74.3) < 0.001
Malaria Prevention during Pregnancy d    
   Insecticide treated net coverage (ITN) (%) 50.4 (43.4-57.5) 10.2 (1.4-18.9) < 0.001
   Intermittent preventative treatment (IPTp) (%) 68.7 (62.5-74.9) 0.78 (0.03-1.5) < 0.001
Water & Sanitation (%) e    
   Average quantity of potable water/person/day    
≤20 L 62.4 8.3 < 0.001
> 20 L (standard) 37.6 91.7  
   # of persons per usable water tap    
≥80 82.5 50.0 < 0.001
< 80 (standard) 17.5 50.0  
   Living within 200 m from water point (%)    
< 100% 64.3 2.8 < 0.001
100% (standard) 35.7 97.2  
   # of persons per communal latrine    
> 20 51.6 52.8 0.900
≤20 (standard) 48.4 47.2  
   Families with latrines (%)    
< 100% 88.4 29.4 < 0.001
100% (standard) 11.6 70.6  
   Families receiving > 250 g soap/person/mo (%)    
< 90% 36.2 41.2 0.636
≥90% (standard) 63.8 58.8  
Nutrition (%) e    
   Global acute malnutrition prevalence (%)    
≥10% 48.6 25.0 0.014
< 10% (standard) 51.4 75.0  
   Average kCals/person/dayf    
< 2100 34.0 22.2 0.189
≥2100 (standard) 66.0 77.8  
  1. aCategorical variables are shown as % and continuous variables are shown as mean (95% confidence intervals)
  2. bAfrica region includes Yemen; n = number of camp-years for the two regions; data is only included if there are at least 8 months of data per year, for the years 2007-2009
  3. cp-values calculated using t-test for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables
  4. dValues directly from HIS database or calculated based on HIS values reported for outpatient visits
  5. eFrom 2007-2009 Annual HIS Factsheets
  6. fkCals/person/day was reported as average in 2008-9 and minimum in 2007.